// posts

  • BUG ZAPPERS: Are they cool, or just a gimmick?

    Tools to Create a Bug-Free Backyard, According to Expert Bobbi Dempsey

    flowtron bk40d electronic insect killer
    PM: What’s your preferred design for bug zappers? B.D: I tend to like the lantern-style models because they are versatile, offer more options for placement, and often have a decorative look that allows them to blend in discreetly. I’ve also used hanging light models and liked them fine. I’m not a huge fan of handheld models because they involve continuous effort and also require close contact with bugs. PM: What’s one feature you always prioritize when searching for a new bug zappers? B.D.: I prefer bug zappers that are as quiet as possible. I’m not a fan of loud zapping noises. Unfortunately, it can be tough to gauge exactly how loud a bug zapper is until you actually use it. This is another reason why I appreciate bug zappers with a large coverage area—that way, you can set it up far from where you’ll be gathering, so the noise won’t be as much of an issue. PM: What other products do you rely on for warding off bugs? B.D.: I’m not a fan of harsh chemicals or toxic materials in general, so I try to opt for natural pest repellents whenever possible. I use citronella candles and essential oils such as peppermint. When using bug sprays and similar pesticides, I look for products made from plant-based ingredients. I also use diatomaceous earth as an effective, long-acting way to kill any insects that might get inside the home or garage.

    Are there any regulations that prohibit bug zappers that: 1. Use UV and/or other forms of light over a certain brightness? For example, a UV light with the brightness of your average dusk-to-dawn light. ⚡︎ AND/OR ⚡︎ 2. Use high voltage (above around 10,000V) with or without high current? And would there be any advantages of being able to zap insects with high power, such as reduction in “sizzle” noise? ⚡︎ AND/OR ⚡︎ 3. Utilize a power grid over a certain size? Such that if a typical bug zapper uses 10 square inches: using a power grid of perhaps 20-200 square inches..? Thank you for your thorough and educational answers in advance! – Fom Tooley fomtooley.com

    Bug Zappers

    by Nick Gromicko, CMI®
    A bug zapper is a popular exterior appliance installed by a homeowner or food handler to attempt localized control of flying insect populations. Its name comes from the characteristic “zap” sound produced when an insect is electrocuted. Around homes, they are primarily used to kill biting (female) mosquitoes, which create itchy bumps and can transmit the West Nile Virus or encephalitis, malaria and yellow fever. While Popular Mechanicsproduced a sketch of a bug zapper as early as 1911, it wasn’t until 1934 that parasitology professor Dr. W.B. Herms introduced the electronic insect killer that became the model for all future bug zappers.

    How They Work 

    Bug zappers typically consist of the following components:
    • the housing, which is a plastic or grounded metal exterior casing that contains the zapper’s parts. It may be shaped liked a lantern, a cylinder or a rectangular cube. A grid design may be incorporated to prevent children and animals from touching the electrified grids inside the device;
    • a light source, which is usually fluorescent-type, such as mercury, neon or ultraviolet light;
    • wire grids or screens, which are electrified layers of wire mesh that surround the light source. These grids are separated by a tiny gap roughly the size of a typical insect (several millimeters); and
    • the transformer, which is the device that electrifies the wire mesh, changing the 120-volt, electrical-line voltage to 2,000 volts or more.
    Bug zappers work by luring flying insects with fluorescent (typically ultraviolet) light into a deadly electrical current. Because the flower patterns that attract insects are better revealed in ultraviolet light, many flying insects that feed on flowers will be drawn to the bug zapper. Before they reach the light, however, they will come into contact with the wire mesh, completing the electrical circuit and disintegrating.
    Bug zappers can kill many thousands of flying insects nightly. Some models incorporate a tray designed to collect scattered insect parts, although many models allow the debris to fall to the ground below.

    Effective or Not? 

    Despite their widespread use, numerous studies have called into question the effectiveness and safety of bug zappers. Two of the more pressing issues are the following:
    • Female (biting) mosquitoes and other biting insects are more attracted to the carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor in the breath of animals than to ultraviolet light. As a consequence, standard bug zappers typically kill large numbers of harmless and beneficial insects, such as beetles and fireflies, and ultimately fail to reduce the number of the types of insects that prompt the purchase of a bug zapper in the first place. In fact, one study found that just 0.22% of the insects killed by bug zappers were biting insects, while nearly half of those killed were harmless, non-biting aquatic insects from nearby rivers and streams. The study even found “the probability of being bitten by mosquitoes increases in the vicinity of these traps,” perhaps because the biting insects are actually lured by the ultraviolet light but become distracted by the far more attractive human prey nearby. Some newer bug zappers address this issue by incorporating a CO2 container at the bottom of the lamp. Other designs attract mosquitoes into a netting device on the outside of the bug zapper that traps the mosquito, and eventually the insect dies of dehydration.
    • The electrocuted insects are blasted into a fine mist that contains insect parts as well as unkilled bacteria and viruses up to 7 feet (2.1 m) from the device. The air surrounding the zapper may become contaminated with campylobacter jejuni, staphylococci, serratia marcescens,enterococci, and other potentially dangerous organisms commonly carried by flies. For this reason, a bug zapper should never be placed over a food preparation area or in a hospital or any other sterile environment to prevent the potential spread of disease. Children should not be allowed to play beneath an operating bug zapper. Models that contain a tray to catch insect debris are less of a health risk.

    Tips for Homeowners 

    Bug zappers do not present more of a fire hazard than other electrical devices. Most units have been UL-tested, but, as with any outdoor electrical appliance, care must be taken to ensure that electrical cords do not become frayed or wet.  They should also be connected to GFCI-protected receptacles.
    Inspectors may pass on the following mosquito-control techniques to concerned homeowners:
    • Do not allow water to accumulate anywhere in your yard for more than a few days. Eliminate sources of standing water, especially old tires, flower pots, clogged gutters, tin cans or buckets. Fill in or drain ruts, puddles and other low places in the yard. Even holes in trees from rot and hollow stumps can collect water that can harbor mosquitoes. Cover trash containers to keep rainwater out, and drill holes in the bottom of trash containers to allow any water to drain. Repair leaky pipes and outdoor faucets.
    • Bug zappers should be cleaned out at least annually to prevent the accumulation of bug parts on the wire mesh, which will decrease the effectiveness of the unit, and may lead to illness if the bug parts contaminate foods, drink or items used by people or pets.
    • Keep grass cut short and any shrubbery well-trimmed, as adult mosquitoes use these places to rest and hide.
    • Encourage the presence of bats by installing a bat house. These winged mammals pose little danger to humans, and a single brown bat can consume up to 600 mosquitoes per hour.
    • Install a fan. Mosquitoes and other flying insects will avoid moving air.
    • Wear long-sleeve shirts and pants. The pesticide permethrin may be applied to clothing to protect against mosquitoes and ticks. Beware that while permethrin is relatively safe for people and dogs, it is toxic to cats.
    In summary, bug zappers are a common yet controversial means of controlling biting insect populations around the home, and caution should be taken in their selection and use.
     
  • Nitrogen Narcosis: Depth Drunk

    Nitrogen narcosis, derived from the Greek word Narke is loosely translated as the “temporary decline or loss of senses and movement.” Like any other adventure sport, scuba diving comes with some associated risks. Nitrogen narcosis or getting “narked” is one of them.

    Nitrogen narcosis is related to the increased solubility of gases in body tissues due to being subjected to increased pressures at depth. Likened by many scuba divers as a similar feeling to being drunk, nitrogen narcosis is also known as “Martini’s Law” with the rough guide that it is the equivalent of drinking one martini on an empty stomach for every 10 feet that you descend! The effects of nitrogen narcosis normally occur at depths of around 30m (100 feet) and below and it is not possible to develop a tolerance to the effects, however, the symptoms are completely reversible by ascending to shallower depths.

    At depth, nitrogen narcosis affects the body by leading to a loss of decision making, and the ability to focus, along with impaired judgement, multi tasking and co-ordination. If you have ever taken the PADI Advanced Open Water course, you may well remember being given a series of mental tests under timed conditions on land, and then underwater at depth to compare judgement. My own test 5 years ago did not really go as planned. On land I had no problems writing the alphabet backwards in a respectable time, but underwater, my instructor wrote on the slate that I should draw a heptagon. I was never a natural mathematician at school, and so my hesitation led to my instructor believing that at 30 meters down, I was narked (when in reality even on land it takes me a long time to work out how many sides are on a heptagon – is it 5?

    As with most things in life, safety comes first, however if you enjoy getting drunk but can’t stand the hangovers, maybe scuba diving is the hobby for you!

    scuba steve gets fucked up on nitrogen under the sea and forgets he needs to breathe
  • CYBER SECURITY
  • how to tie a luthiers knot

    aka : how to string your guitar CORRECTLY

    … this video plays at 3x the normal speed – this adjustment was made due to the exteme delusion this man suffers from; in that he believes this parallels rocket science …
  • (no title)
    www.reddit.com/r/Unexpected/comments/w3ibdb/keep_calm_and_carry_on/
  • let me in
    © fom tooley 2022 – All Rights Reserved.

    https://www.instagram.com/reel/CgI4IJjDNAD/?igshid=YmMyMTA2M2Y=


  • (no title)
    instagram.com/stories/fomtooley/2884743593834029779
  • Squale “Squalematic” 60ATM Light Blue Professional Diving Watch

    The Matic is the most sought-after collection for underwater enthusiasts, not only for the functionality of the product but also for the cutting-edge production techniques, guaranteed to meet needs of even the most demanding divers.



    From the bright shades of the dials to the applied indexes, all the details are designed to captivate with a perfect harmony of colors that shimmer underwater. Beginning with the iconic Squale case back, the introduction of some structural changes has made possible the creation of a watch that performs even better, allowing you to reach a depth of 600 meters below sea level.

    Not just a functional tool, but a watch for life…

    Domed sapphire crystal

    To retain water resistance up to 60 atmospheres, the watch is equipped with a double-domed sapphire crystal that allows for better performance. Despite the curvature, legibility is always perfect from any angle, thanks to the anti-reflective coating.

    Bezel insert with applied indexes

    The bezel insert is the distinguishing element par excellence of the Matic collection. Starting from a steel disc, the semi-finished product undergoes a lacquering process. Next, the indicators are applied, and finally the whole thing is covered in a transparent varnish, giving it a smooth and resistant finish.



    https://www.pinterest.com/fomtooley/
  • aviators..?

  • Honey Bee Knowledge
    Honey Bee Knowledge  ⏣  Honeybees ⎔ Honeycomb ⎔ Apiary ⎔ Pollination ⎔ Beehive ⎔ Beekeeping  ⏣  Illustrated Information Image  ⏣  #honeybee #honey #beekeeping #bees #pollinators #infographic #information #beehive #apiary #honeycomb
  • DUDE BOMBS : stank eliminator

    http://pinterest.com/fomtooley/
  • How to Build Your Own DCR Measuring Tool

    Let’s build one of my favorite DIY guitar tools that I use daily in my shop. I’ll show you two versions and then explain how to put them into action.

    Welcome back to Mod Garage. After receiving numerous requests to show more DIY tools for guitarists, today we’ll explore one of my favorites. For years I’ve used this one in the shop daily and I’m sure you’ll love it. It’s cheap and easy to build, but very effective for analyzing circuits of electric guitars and basses without opening the electronic compartment or lifting the pickguard. It’s a kind of adaptor or extension to measure a pickup’s DC resistance (DCR) from outside the guitar. After building one, we’ll discuss how to interpret the measurements.

    The DCR of a pickup is by far the most common parameter you can read when reading pickup descriptions and often it’s used as an indicator of the output. The reason for this is that it’s easy to measure, but, sadly, it doesn’t tell us anything about a pickup’s output nor its tone. To quote pickup designer Bill Lawrence: “DC resistance tells you as much about a pickup’s tone and output as the shoe size tells you about a person’s intelligence.

    I’ve written about DCR as a pickup parameter in detail and you can read about it in “Mod Garage: Demystifying DCR.”

    DCR is not a primary parameter in pickup design. It’s simply the result of the type and gauge of the pickup’s wire, the number of turns, and other parameters like the winding pattern, etc. But it isn’t completely useless, and we can use it as a good reference point for analyzing pickups both inside and outside a guitar or bass circuit. All you need for this is a digital multimeter (DMM). You don’t need an expensive calibrated precision DMM—any entry level DMM will work. You can get a simple digital DMM for $10, but if you want to invest in a better device, it can’t harm.

    The easiest way to analyze a pickup is outside a circuit. Simply set your DMM to ohm and connect the two pickup leads to your DMM. If your DMM doesn’t have an auto-range function, set it to 20k ohm. Now you’ll get the DCR reading for your pickup. You can compare it to the factory specs of your pickup and it should be close. If your DMM shows “infinite” or “overload,” you know the pickup wire is broken. Let’s say your pickup should read 7k ohm, but yours reads around 2-3k ohm. Your pickup likely has a short circuit somewhere in the winding. Used this way, the DCR is always good to quickly check if a pickup is alive or not.

    To quickly analyze a guitar or bass circuit with one or more pickups, you first need to build the DIY adaptor tool this column is about. There are two different versions, and you don’t need much for this:

    • Version #1: This is the quick and dirty version. You need a standard 6.3 mm straight mono plug (the same type on all your guitar cables), some wire of your choice (preferably in two different colors), and two insulated alligator clips.
    • Version #2: A more elegant version that you can also use with a scope if you have one. You need the same parts as for version #1, but instead of two alligator clips, you need two 4 mm banana plugs, and the two wires need to be longer than what you’d use for Version #1.

    So, heat up your soldering iron and let’s get to building version #1.

    1. Solder one piece of wire to the HOT terminal of the mono plug and another one to the GROUND terminal. I prefer a red wire for the HOT and a black wire for the GROUND terminal (Photo 1).
    2. Solder an insulated alligator-clip to each end of the two wires, preferably a black one to the black wire and a red one to the red wire. Ready!

    Version #2 is built the same way, but, instead of alligator clips, you solder a 4 mm banana plug to each end of the two wires, if possible, also in black and red. The two wires should be long enough that can place your DMM and/or scope at some distance from the guitar. In Photo 2, you can see version #1 on the top and version #2 on the bottom.

    The difference between the two versions is that with version #1 you put the plug into the output jack of the guitar, connecting the two probes of your DMM to the alligator clips: the black probe of the DMM goes to ground (black wire) and the red probe goes to hot (red wire) as seen in Photo 3. With version #2, you need to remove the two probes from your DMM, plugging the two banana plugs directly into your DMM or your scope, also seen in Photo 3.

    Both versions work equally well. Version #2 is just easier to operate when you also want to use the adaptor for a scope.

    For a quick check, you can also directly touch the hot and ground terminals with the probes of your DMM, but you need both hands or a second person for this if you want to play around with the controls or the pickup-selector switch.

    Now we can easily check four things with this tool, assuming everything is connected the way it should be and your DMM is set to ohm and auto-range or the 20k ohm scale if your DMM doesn’t have an auto-range mode:

    1. Do you receive a reading on your connected DMM? If not, check if the volume pot is fully opened. Do you receive a reading now? If so, close the volume pot completely and see if you still receive a reading. No? Perfect, you just proved that the volume pot is alive and well.
    2. With a fully opened volume pot and a reading on your DMM, slowly turn down the volume and watch the reading on the DMM. If you receive some crazy reading, chances are good there is a treble bleed network on your volume pot. If the reading slowly goes down to zero, you know that there is no treble bleed network on the volume pot, and you can check if it’s an audio or linear volume pot (plus the taper it has, if it’s an audio pot). Let’s say we have a 500k volume pot. When you close the volume pot halfway and receive a reading around 250k, you know it’s a linear pot. An audio pot, depending on its taper, will result in a much higher reading on the first 50 percent of the volume pot. If you read 500k until the volume pot is almost fully closed, this means the pot has a 90:10 audio taper—exactly the kind of volume pot you don’t want to have. If you read something around 300k in the middle of the volume pot, you know it’s a 60:40 audio taper.
    3. If the volume pot is fully opened and you don’t receive a reading on your DMM, chances are good that your output jack is broken, not connected, or connected incorrectly. Please make sure there is no activated kill-switch in the circuit that can also cause this “problem.”
    4. Turning the tone knob(s) will make no difference in the reading you receive. If you receive a slightly higher reading with a tone pot fully opened compared to when it’s closed, you know it’s a no-load tone pot.

    There is a lot to discover from just the outside of any guitar or bass. So, now let’s see what we can measure from outside the instrument starting with a Telecaster with a 4-way switch. The readings in all examples are the readings I received with guitars I had in the shop, but they can be different in your instruments:

    • Bridge pickup only: 5.85k ohm
    • Neck pickup only: 6.76k ohm
    • Both pickups together: 3.18k ohm
    • Pickup selector switch in position #4: 12.30k ohm

    The readings for both pickups are within the factory specs and are in a typical range for a vintage-flavored Telecaster pickup set. With a reading of 3.18k ohm for both pickups together, you know that both pickups are in parallel. With the reading of 12.30k ohm, you know that both pickups are in series with each other.

    Here is the simplified math behind these readings:

    • Series connection: DCR pickup #1 + DCR pickup #2
      • In our example, it’s 5.85k + 6.76k = 12.61k ohm, which is very close to the reading of 12.30k we received. The missing 0.31k ohm are eaten up by the resistance of the pots and the tolerance of your DMM. For this test, I chose the cheapest DMM I could find in the shop. A calibrated high-quality DMM will have much less tolerance.
    • Parallel connection: (DCR pickup #1 + DCR pickup #2) divided by four
      • In our example, it’s 5.85k + 6.76k = 12.61k ohm divided by four = 3.15k ohm, which is very close to the reading of 3.18k ohm we received.

    Now let’s repeat this with a standard Stratocaster:

    • Bridge pickup only: 7.07k ohm
    • Middle pickup only: 5.88k ohm
    • Neck pickup only: 5.70k ohm
    • Bridge + Middle pickups together: 3.26k ohm
    • Neck + Middle pickups together: 2.94k ohm

    All three pickups are within the factory specs of this Strat. We have a slightly hotter bridge and two vintage-flavored pickups. The two in-between positions are in parallel.

    Lastly, let’s try a vintage PAF-loaded Les Paul:

    • Bridge pickup only: 7.77k ohm
    • Neck pickup only: 7.09k ohm
    • Both pickups together: 3.74k ohm

    Both PAFs have the typical vintage DCR and are in parallel in the middle position.

    That’s it. Next month we’ll take a deeper look at changing wires on pickups, which is something I’ve been asked about a lot, so stay tuned!Until then … keep on modding!


    by Dick Wacker – PREMIER GUITAR

  • Texas Could Vote to Secede From U.S. in 2023 as GOP Pushes for Referendum

    Texas Republicans are pushing for a referendum to decide whether the state should secede from the U.S.

    A typical middle-aged male Texan waving the America flag with his fat gut hanging out
    Texas Republicans are pushing for a referendum to see if the state should secede from the U.S. Above, Kenny Wolfam open carries a pistol and wears a “Trump 2020” t-shirt while counter-protesting a “Moms Demand Action” protest at Buffalo Bayou Park in Houston, Texas on June 17, 2021.
    The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street.

    https://videos.newsweek.com/share/534198?amp=1&autostart=1&publisher=amp_nw&items=1&nwcat=nwus-us&iabcat=IAB12-2,IAB12&ivt_fq=0#amp=1


    The demand for Texans to be allowed to vote on the issue in 2023 was one of many measures adopted in the Texas GOP’s party platform following last week’s state convention in Houston.

    Under a section titled “State Sovereignty,” the platform states: “Pursuant to Article 1, Section 1, of the Texas Constitution, the federal government has impaired our right of local self-government. Therefore, federally mandated legislation that infringes upon the 10th Amendment rights of Texas should be ignored, opposed, refused, and nullified.

    https://ba8da7ea5ade5db2f9af796ab117995a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html?n=0


    “Texas retains the right to secede from the United States, and the Texas Legislature should be called upon to pass a referendum consistent thereto.”

    Texas Republicans are pushing for a referendum to see if the state should secede from the U.S. Above, Kenny Wolfam open carries a pistol and wears a “Trump 2020” t-shirt while counter-protesting a “Moms Demand Action” protest at Buffalo Bayou Park in Houston, Texas on June 17, 2021.

    In another section on state governance, the platform states that Texas Republicans want the state Legislature to pass a bill in its next session “requiring a referendum in the 2023 general election for the people of Texas to determine whether or not the State of Texas should reassert its status as an independent nation.

    https://ba8da7ea5ade5db2f9af796ab117995a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html?n=0


    The myth that Texas can secede from the U.S. continues because of the state’s history of independence, according to The Texas Tribune. Texas declared independence from Mexico in 1836 and spent nine years as its own nation before becoming a U.S. state. Texas then seceded from the Union in 1861 before being readmitted following the end of the Civil War in 1870.

    The U.S. Constitution makes no provision for states to secede and in 1869, the Supreme Court ruled in Texas v. White that states cannot unilaterally secede from the Union.

    “If there was any constitutional issue resolved by the Civil War, it is that there is no right to secede,” the late Justice Antonin Scalia once wrote.

    https://ba8da7ea5ade5db2f9af796ab117995a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html?n=0


    Still, modern secessionist efforts have continued in the state for decades—and calls to secede tend to become louder when a Democrat is a president, according to the Tribune.

    It’s not clear how popular the effort is among Texans, but the Texas Nationalist Movement’s website claims almost half a million Texans support its work to “make Texas an independent nation again.”

    The movement’s efforts have been promoted by Texas Republicans. Last year, state Representative Kyle Biedermann introduced a bill that called for a “Texit” referendum, which was endorsed by Texas GOP chairman Allen West. The bill ultimately failed.

    https://ba8da7ea5ade5db2f9af796ab117995a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html?n=0


    The bill was rebuked by lawmakers on both sides of the aisle, with Republican state Representative Jeff Leach branding it a “disgrace to the Lone Star State” and the “very definition of seditious.”

    As well as the issue of a referendum, delegates also voted on more than 270 platform planks as the convention closed on Saturday. The votes will be tallied and certified in Austin, but it is rare for a plank to be rejected, party spokesperson James Wesolek told The Tribune. He has been contacted for additional comment.

    https://ba8da7ea5ade5db2f9af796ab117995a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html?n=0


    Texas Republicans also approved a resolution declaring that President Joe Biden was “not legitimately elected,” signaling the continued support for former President’s baseless claims of widespread fraud in the 2020 presidential election.

    The Texas GOP’s new party platform also called for full repeal of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

    Other planks also indicated a further shift to the right for the party, giving prominence to culture issues. The platform describes homosexuality as “an abnormal lifestyle choice,” and also declares that the party opposes “all efforts to validate transgender identity.

    https://ba8da7ea5ade5db2f9af796ab117995a.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html?n=0


    The platform also calls for a total ban on abortion and “equal protection for the Preborn.” Abortion is currently prohibited after around six weeks of pregnancy in Texas, but an imminent ruling from the U.S. Supreme Court could overturn the decision in Roe v. Wade that guaranteed abortion rights nationwide and trigger a law in Texas making abortion illegal.

    The new Texas GOP platform also states that the education system should focus on “imparting essential academic knowledge, understanding why Texas and America are exceptional and have positively contributed to our world, and while doing so, also offer enrichment subjects that bless students’ lives.”

    It calls for students to learn about the “Humanity of the Preborn Child,” including teaching that life begins at fertilization. It also demands that the state legislature pass a law prohibiting the teaching of “sex education, sexual health, or sexual choice or identity in any public school in any grade whatsoever.”


  • delusion.cloud and fom tooley present:

    Leafy Sea Dragons in all Three Dimensions


    Leafy Seadragons in all Three Dimensions

  • sex with benefits: the physicalogic and psychologic effects of screwing

    https://youtu.be/1I1pF62-lX0
    go ahead and fuck. it could save your life.

  • UKRAINE GUN BATTLE CAUGHT ON CAMERA
    https://youtu.be/xgoHI9A36u4
    @fomtooley

  • A Unique Anatomy Study by a Student of Fine Arts
    human skeleton praying to God hand drawn or sketched on paper or parchment with charcoal or graphite in juxtaposition of a typical anatomy study done by a student of fine arts for figure drawing
    bone to pick ?
    https://pin.it/2RkQ9vT
  • Russians laugh at nuking New York City
  • This is what one town in Ukraine looks like after Russian troops withdrew:

    A monument for Taras Shevchenko is symbolically protected by bandages in Borodyanka, northwest of Kyiv.

    In the devastated town of Borodyanka, northwest of Kyiv, Natasha Romanenko has pushed paper into the bullet holes peppered across her windows.


    It’s to keep the cold out, she tells us.

    “You can see, there are holes where they were shooting directly in our window when we were hiding there,” she says, speaking through NPR’s interpreter.

    When Russian forces invaded and occupied the town, the damage was devastating. Ukrainian officials say Russia deliberately bombed civilian areas and that hundreds are still missing more than a week after the invading forces withdrew. Now, crews are sifting through the wreckage to see what — and who — survived.

    We start to see signs of the destruction on the drive from Kyiv into Borodyanka. What should be a quick trip now takes hours as destroyed bridges mean more cars crowd onto the few reliable routes, and the military checkpoints create long lines on narrow roads.

    A destroyed building in the town of Borodyanka.

    We pass through the village of Dmitriovka and see a burned-out car near homes reduced to rubble. A little farther on, there is a flattened tank.

    Then, another destroyed car that has the word “children” spray-painted in Russian along the side door.

    We arrive on Borodyanka’s main street — Central Street — with a humanitarian convoy that immediately begins handing out food and water.

    It’s here that we meet Natasha. She and her family spent a month hiding in a cramped, dark root cellar.

    “What did we eat? Mostly potatoes,” she says. “I had some spare oil, and I have a cow, so I had milk. And I went to my neighbor, I gave her some milk. She gave me some other things, some cheese. So this is how we survived. Our cow saved us.”

    Natasha takes us to the cellar, which is mostly filled with crates of potatoes. She explains that at night, they would lay a carpet over the crates and try to sleep on top of that, keeping warm under all the blankets they had.

    In the final days of the occupation, Natasha says, a Russian soldier confronted her. She had ventured out to milk her cow, and he thought she was scouting Russian troop locations. She says he took her out to the middle of the road and pointed a gun to her head.

    Natasha Romanenko and her family spent a month hiding from Russian forces in Borodyanka.

    “He was threatening me,” she says. “And what did I say to him? I said I just wish one thing: that he would see my face for the rest of his days, so he would never forget what he’s done here.”

    The soldier spoke to someone else on his radio. Then, Natasha says, he let her go.

    As the aid workers move through the main street, we break from the group, and the scale of the destruction starts to sink in. It’s utter devastation everywhere you look. 

    There’s an apartment building blackened from flames, with the middle collapsed from the bombing. The windows in all the storefronts have shattered and roofs have collapsed. There are burned vehicles in the streets, and most of the power lines are down and frayed on the ground.

    Across from the destroyed apartment building, there’s a small park with a monument in the middle. On top sits a giant bust of Taras Shevchenko, the famous Ukrainian poet. Bullet holes pierce his forehead.

    The tall pillar that the bust rests on is cracked and crumbling from all the shrapnel. Three policemen are holding a ladder while another man stands nearby, ready to climb to the top.

    Apartment complexes burned and blackened by flames from bombing in Borodyanka, northwest of Kyiv

    Yaroslav Halubchik is an artist from Kyiv and has come here to help create an ad hoc art project — an instant memorial of sorts.

    “We’re calling it ‘The Curing of Shevchenko’ or ‘The Healing of Shevchenko,’ ” he says.

    Yaroslav steps up the ladder and starts to wrap a big gauze bandage around the bust’s giant head. As he does that, a man in a Ukrainian military uniform comes up and asks him what he’s doing.

    Yaroslav explains that it’s performance art, and the soldier seems satisfied. It turns out, he was worried that they were repairing it.

    “In this case, it is vital that we keep this monument as it is right now, it shouldn’t be touched,” the soldier says. He adds that it’s especially important because of who Shevchenko was.

    “This is really important, because we all know that Shevchenko and other Ukrainian poets were always enemies of Russia,” he explains. “I really hope that people will rebuild everything here as it was, but we should keep this as it is now.”

    We ask his name. He’s Yevhen Nyshchuk — the former Ukrainian minister of culture. He’s in the military now and based nearby.

    A monument at the entrance of the town of Borodyanka.

    We keep making our way down the main street. Building after building has collapsed from the bombardment of tank and rocket fire.

    In the nearby town of Bucha, bodies were found in the street. Here, with so many collapsed structures, the worry is that bodies are still trapped underneath.

    Several cranes carefully pick up debris, as recovery teams look for remains. There’s a playground in front of one of the buildings and a woman is sitting there on a bench next to a slide, watching the recovery work.

    Her name is Ludmila Boiko.

    “My sister and her son lived here. This is what’s left of them,” she says, pointing to a pile of old notebooks. His mother kept his old notebooks from school.”

    Ludmila found them scattered around the debris of the apartment building. That and some pictures, she says, are the only things she’s found.

    Ludmila’s sister Olyna Vahnenko was 56. Her nephew, Yuri, was 24. He had just graduated from college.

    Ludmila Boiko near a collapsed building in Borodyanka.

    They’d left their apartment and sought shelter. But on March 1, during a break in the shelling and bombing, Olyna and Yuri went back. Ludmila says they talked on the phone, and Olyna said they had been able to shower and eat some food.

    An hour later, Russian forces destroyed the building.

    Our friends were trying to help us, but for four days, it was a huge fire here,” Ludmila says. “And so first they were trying to fight the fire. They didn’t have a chance to do excavations right away.”

    When the fire stopped, people started trying to look for survivors. Then shelling began again, and they had to flee.

    After that, she says Russian forces were posted here, and nobody could get near the building.

    Searching couldn’t resume until a month after the attack. So Ludmila sat, and waited.

    “I just want to see how they discover all the bodies that they assume should be there, and then probably I would like to do something like with DNA testing because I want to know for sure what happened,” she says.

    “I was so close with them that I don’t even know how I should live now. How should I live in this place?”

    Rescuers search a collapsed building in Borodyanka.

    The crane continues to slowly remove rubble from a collapsed building.

    Soon, workers discover a woman’s body. Ludmila climbs up the pile of rubble to look. 

    The body is removed, covered and placed next to three others found earlier that day.

    Ludmila goes back to the playground and sits down, continuing her vigil.


  • If you’re constantly accused of cheating, your partner may be the unfaithful one

    “Guilt transference” is a ploy commonly used by cheaters. If your spouse is unfairly accusing you of cheating, she might be hiding something herself…

    My wife worked in a high-powered male-dominated field, while I work in decor and deal with many women. She started accusing me of flirting when she heard me talking to clients on the phone, then she kept asking me whom I was seeing when I went on calls to clients’ homes.

    I was innocent and didn’t see the signals that SHE was cheating and trying to deflect any suspicions I might have had about her, since she often worked late and travelled for work.

    The truth came out when I saw her lover’s texts on her phone, which she thought she’d lost. 

    But I found it stuck under a seat of her car when I drove it in for repairs as a favour to her.

    Wrongly Accused

    It must’ve felt like watching a magician’s performance of the Great Transferring Act. You got wrongly accused and hounded about things you never did, while the swirl of accusatory questions and unfair blame kept you from seeing the reality.

    Her daily sham production — the powerful job, her time spent with her lover, playing the wife role back home — all made for a drama which she had to keep going so you wouldn’t even look for the truth.

    It’s a destructive ploy that’s not uncommonly used by determined cheaters. Many therapists have noted this “guilt transference” among people who refuse to take responsibility for their own misbehaviour.

    You haven’t said that it’s over. But it’s hard to imagine that she would drop her self-righteous pose to admit she’d been the bad guy in the marriage, and want to repair it.


    I met this guy through a mutual friend whom I trusted. Though he lived out of town, he did business in my city and visited me often. We became intimate and I thought he could be the One.

    I ignored the small concern about why he didn’t contact me much during the week when he was in his city, unless he was in his car. 

    He’d phone me when travelling to clients, and he’d say the most romantic things and wind me up about our being together again.

    But once when he travelled abroad and didn’t contact me at all, I was hurt and told him so when he returned. He kept saying he “couldn’t do that,” and it suddenly clicked. 

    He was travelling with another woman. It turned out she was his fiancée and they were married a few months later. What a scumbag! I no longer think much of our “friend,” either.


    Duped and Disgusted 

    That was no friend, if he/she knew the guy was already deeply attached, and/or a proven player (since he was pretty practiced at deceit).

    A lover who only calls you from a car usually signals that he/she’s a cheater. It means the person can’t call any other time. It’s likely you weren’t the only other person this guy was stringing along, even while he was engaged.

    He’s also the kind of unashamed rogue who may try to reconnect after newlywed life makes him feel hemmed in (I give that about six months max). 

    Don’t even have the conversation with Scumbag, or he’ll try winding you up again.

    The lesson: Check out your “small concerns” in any next relationship. Look for reasons that make sense. Otherwise, recognize the red flags and follow them to whatever’s being hidden.


    Tip of the day

    If you’re innocent but constantly being accused, look closer at who might be the cheater.

  • Is Ghosting the new Dating? 👻

    by Brian Moniz

    Anyone who has ever been on a dating app has been down this road before — you meet someone online who messages you, “Hey handsome! You’re very cute and I like your profile, I’d love to meet you sometime!” Both of you chat for a few days, maybe even a week or two, then agree to meet in person. After a little time spent together, the other guy gives you the typical rundown of cliché compliments every gay man says to each other, “You’re so awesome, you’re unlike all the other guys out there.” “You actually seem sweet and genuine and not just looking for a hookup.” “You’re the man of my dreams! I’m so happy we met!” and my personal favorite, “How are you still single!?” The date goes well and you leave the night on great terms, maybe even with a kiss. Just before bed, the other guy reinforces his interest in you with a goodnight-text, “I had a great time tonight. Great to meet you and looking forward to hanging out again!” Every single one of you reading this has experienced a night like this, and unfortunately, know what is likely going to happen next.

    The next morning you wake up and check your phone to see if this new handsome gentleman has left you any messages — nothing — but it is still early, so you text him, “Good morning handsome, thanks again for a great night!” An hour goes by and still no reply…maybe he’s at work. Around lunchtime you send another text, “Hope you’re having a nice day!” Another few hours go by and still no reply. You give him a day or two and decide to text him again, “Want to hang out again soon?” Again, nothing. You hop on Facebook or Instagram to leave him a message and can’t seem to find his profile page anymore. When you log back into the dating app where you first met you discover his profile is missing altogether. That’s when it hits you — he didn’t delete his accounts, he deleted you.

    The other person has blocked you and probably blocked your number, too. You re-trace your steps from that first night, wondering what you could have possibly said or done to turn this guy off. You pick up your phone and call him only to hear two rings before being sent to voicemail. If it went straight to voicemail that means his phone was off or dead; if it had rung many times that means he didn’t see it or was away from his phone; but it rang twice, that tells you he saw his phone ringing, saw your name on it, and declined your call. You hang up and leave a text message:

    “Hey (name), I hope I haven’t said or done anything to upset you, you seemed really nice and I thought we had a good time. Did you delete your Facebook and Instagram? I wanted to leave you a comment earlier today but noticed we aren’t connected on them anymore. If you don’t want to hang out or go on another date that’s a bummer but could you just tell me so at least I know that’s what you want. Anyway, I hope everything is okay and you’re having a nice day. Hope to hear from you, even if it’s just to tell me you’re not interested anymore. Thanks.”

    If you are even lucky enough to hear from him at all, you’ll get the “Hey sorry just been super busy. You seem nice, but I honestly don’t think we will work out romantically, but I’m down to stay friends?” text. Which as anyone who has ever received that text knows, there is absolutely no chance of staying friends. You read that text and put your phone away knowing you will never see or hear from that individual again. Like I said, that’s if he decides to contact you back at all. Most of the time he will just delete you everywhere, block your number and move on to the next guy he finds on a dating app. You may even run into him on the street or in a bar, to which he will make awkward eye contact, give you a guilty half-smile and avoid any contact until one of you leaves.

    GHOSTING is the act of abruptly ignoring someone completely in hopes of getting them to forget about you and leave you alone. You don’t give them any reasoning, explanation or closure, you simply try to make yourself disappear from their life, which often includes blocking their number, their social media accounts, their dating app profiles and avoiding them in-person at all costs.

    This is the unfortunate, common way people our age date now; we are a generation of ghosts. “Ghosting” is the act of abruptly ignoring someone completely in hopes of getting them to forget about you and leave you alone. You don’t give them any reasoning, explanation or closure, you simply try to make yourself disappear from their life, which often includes blocking their number, their social media accounts, their dating app profiles and avoiding them in-person at all costs. While ghosting is very immature and just plain cruel, it has become the new normal for young people these days. It is much easier to just ghost someone than to have to explain to them why you suddenly don’t have any interest in them. No one wants to own up to hurting someone else’s feelings, so it’s much easier to just click “block” and hope the other person gets the hint and goes away.

    The world of dating has come a long way from leaving love notes and taking someone out to dinner and movie, earning a kiss on the third date and then meeting the other person’s parents. We live in a hook-up culture where meeting people has become painfully easy. Many people would rather just get a quick fix with strangers they met online than go on proper dates and develop a real relationship that is not just about hooking up and leaving when it is over. Of course, not everyone has ghosted someone else before, but we have all felt what it is like to be ghosted and it’s not fun.

    If you are just looking for a hookup and are not interested in finding a partner, at the very least have the courage to tell anyone who wants to meet you that before you ghost and hurt them. They say whatever negative energy you put out into the world you get back ten-fold, so to all you professional ghosts out there who still actively meet people then abandon them cold turkey, you might be able to avoid the people you hurt, but you can’t escape the karma that’s coming your way.

  • Ghosting: What It Is, Why It Hurts, and What You Can Do About It

    What it Means to Ghost and Be Ghosted? What to Do If You’re Ghosted


    ghosting - what it means to ghost and to be ghosted - and what to do if you have been ghosted

    You’re in a relationship. Suddenly, and maybe without any warning at all, your partner seems to have disappeared. No calls, no text messages, no connection made on social media, no responses to any of your messages. Odds are, your partner hasn’t unexpectedly left town because of a family emergency, and isn’t lying dead in a ditch somewhere but, rather, has simply ended the relationship without bothering to explain or even let you know. You’ve been ghosted.

    Who Ghosts and Who Gets Ghosted?

    Why would someone choose to simply disappear from another person’s life, rather than plan, at minimum, a conversation to end a relationship? You may never know for sure why you were ghosted. While more studies need to be done specifically on the ghosting phenomenon, past research has looked at different types of attachment personalities and choice of breakup strategies; it’s possible that people with an avoidant type personality (those who hesitate to form or completely avoid attachments to others, often as result of parental rejection), who are reluctant to get very close to anyone else due to trust and dependency issues and often use indirect methods of ending relationships, are more likely to use ghosting to initiate a break-up.

    Other research found that people who are believers in destiny, who think that relationships are either meant to be or not, are more likely to find ghosting acceptable than people who believe relationships take patience and work. One study also suggests that people who end relationships by ghosting have often been ghosted themselves. In that case, the ghoster knows what it feels like to have a relationship end abruptly, with no explanation, no room for discussion. Yet they seemingly show no empathy toward the other, and may or may not experience any feelings of guilt over their ghosting behavior. 

    What it Means to Ghost and Be Ghosted

    Ghosting is by no means limited to long-term romantic relationships. Informal dating relationships, friendships, even work relationships may end with a form of ghosting. For the person who does the ghosting, simply walking away from a relationship, or even a potential relationship, is a quick and easy way out. No drama, no hysterics, no questions asked, no need to provide answers or justify any of their behavior, no need to deal with someone else’s feelings. Certainly, while the ghoster may benefit from avoiding an uncomfortable situation and any potential drama, they’ve done nothing to improve their own conversation and relationships skills for the future.

    For the person who is ghosted, there is no closure and often deep feelings of uncertainty and insecurity. Initially, you wonder “what’s going on?” When you realize the other person has ended the relationship, you’re left to wonder why, what went wrong in the relationship, what’s wrong with you, what’s wrong with them, how you didn’t see this coming.

    What to Do If You’re Ghosted

    Ghosting hurts; it’s a cruel rejection. It is particularly painful because you are left with no rationale, no guidelines for how to proceed, and often a heap of emotions to sort through on your own. If you suffer from any abandonment or self-esteem issues, being ghosted may bring them to the forefront.

    In this age of ever-advancing technology, your ghoster is likely to appear on your various forms of social media and, if that’s the case, this person who is now physically gone from your life, is still quite visible. How do you move on? Unfortunately, there’s no magic bullet or proven advice to quickly guide you into recovery from a ghosted heart, but there is common sense.

    “Avoid reminders of your ex,” advises Gwendolyn Seidman, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology and Chair of the Psychology Department at Albright College in Pennsylvania. “They’re likely to cause painful emotions to resurface, and they won’t help you get emotional closure or insight into why they broke up with you.”

    After you stop torturing yourself by going over old photos, saved old texts, new social media postings, and anything else you think might give you insight into the mind and current whereabouts of your ghoster (and let’s face it, you’re bound to be doing that even if you’re not normally an obsessive person), try to find a new distraction. Perhaps most importantly, know that this probably isn’t about you or anything you did wrong.

    “You should realize that if your ex chose the strategy of ghosting to break up with you, it likely tells you something about them and their shortcomings, rather than indicating that the problem lies with you.” Dr. Seidman adds.

    In other words, try to move on as quickly and completely as you can. Maintain your dignity and stay focused on your own health, happiness and future, leaving the ghoster to deal with the ultimate repercussions of their own immaturity and lack of courage in the context of a relationship.


  • Russian warship Moskva has sunk !
    russia ship sunk
    The Moskva patrolling the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Syria
    A Russian warship that was damaged by an explosion on Wednesday has sunk, Russia’s defence ministry has said. Moskva, the flagship of Russia’s Black Sea Fleet, was being towed to port when “stormy seas” caused it to sink, according to a ministry message. The 510-crew missile cruiser was a symbol of Russia’s military power, leading its naval assault on Ukraine. Kyiv says its missiles hit the warship. Moscow has not reported any attack. It says the vessel sank after a fire. The blaze caused the explosion of the warship’s ammunition, Russia says, adding that the entire crew were later evacuated to nearby Russian vessels in the Black Sea. It provided no further details. After saying initially the warship was afloat, late on Thursday Russian state media broke the news that the Moskva had been lost. “While being towed… towards the destined port, the vessel lost its balance due to damage sustained in the hull as fire broke out after ammunition exploded. Given the choppy seas, the vessel sank,” state news agency Tass quoted the Russian defence ministry as saying. Ukrainian military officials said they struck the Moskva with Ukrainian-made Neptune missiles – a weapon designed after Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014, and the naval threat to Ukraine in the Black Sea grew. A senior Ukrainian official said as many as 510 crew could have been on board the Moskva. Originally built in the Soviet-era, the Moskva entered service in the early 1980s. The vessel was actually laid down in Ukraine’s southern city of Mykolaiv, which has been heavily bombed by Russia in recent days. The guided missile cruiser was previously deployed by Moscow in the Syria conflict where it supplied Russian forces in the country with naval protection. russia ship sunk by ukraine It reportedly had 16 Vulkan anti-ship missiles and an array of anti-submarine and mine-torpedo weapons. If the Ukrainian attack is confirmed, the 12,490-tonne Moskva would be the biggest warship to be sunk by enemy action since World War Two. It is the second major vessel Russia has lost since the start of its invasion. In March, the Saratov landing ship was destroyed by a Ukrainian attack in the harbour of Berdyansk, a Sea of Azov Ukrainian port seized by Russia.
  • a robot ?
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    Buy yourself a new Asshole at: amazon.com/astro


    Meet

    Alt text

    Keep home closer with Astro, the household robot for home monitoring, with Alexa. When you’re away, use the Astro app to see a live view of your home, check in on specific rooms and viewpoints, and get activity alerts. When you’re home, Astro can follow you from room to room playing your favorite music, podcasts or shows, and find you to deliver calls, reminders, alarms, and timers set with Alexa.


    Buy yourself a new Asshole at: amazon.com/astro

  • You’re neither.

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  • Yardley Threaded Inserts

    yeardley threaded inserts Yeardley Threaded Inserts
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  • Raspberry PI 3 Robot Kit

    Build ya a sexbot!

    Raspberry Pi 3 Robot Kit from SunFounder
    Raspberry Pi 3 Kit

    This is the perfect box to build whatever you want!

    With speech recognition, simple, visual coding, motor/servo drivers, and analog and digital ports, this box with Raspberry Pi included is the perfect base for any of your projects!

    • Raspberry Pi Model 3 B
    • Motor/Servo driver board
    • Use included visual programming code (Dragit) or Python
    • 8 channel RPi GPIOs and 5 analog ports for sensors and actuators
    • Text-to-Speech and Speech-to-Text capable
    • Lead Time: this product takes approximately 30 days to arrive.

    RASPBERRY PI 3 ROBOT KIT

    • Regular price: $149.99
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  • HOW TO: make a wireless camera from shit round the house

    Got an old cell phone laying around pretending to be a paperweight? SURE YA DO! Round up your old phones and watch the video. It’s mildly entertaining and easy.


    https://youtu.be/VqVKAQAXQuc
  • No one is safe: “This tiny $30 device can break into your car and home.”
    This super-small piece of electronics can hack into your car and home, and it requires only $30 to make. hack home security systems with this cheap electronic pussy device / cumNot everyone wants to accept this simple truth, but that doesn’t make it any less real: hackers outpace security advancements. When it comes to both online security and real-world security, hackers have already devised 10 new tools by the time security researchers come up with an effective way to block one old tool. As a result, no one is ever truly safe — and a new device recently shown off by a well-known security researcher is yet another example of just how vulnerable we really are.

    Online and offline security expert Samy Kamkar took to Defcon 2015 to show off a tiny device he calls “Rolljam.” The device is as shockingly simple as it is devious and brilliant, and it can be used to break into just about any car. Worse yet, it can even be used to break into a target’s home.

    Rolljam is a tiny series of circuit boards with three in-built radios, Wired reports. It works by using two of the radios to jam the wireless signal sent out by a car’s keyless entry remote, while the third radio reads the code that was transmitted by the remote, which is then stored on the device.

    Keyless entry devices use a system of rolling codes to prevent hackers from stealing them wirelessly and reusing them at will. Once a code is used a single time, it cannot be used again — and therein lies the brilliance of the Rolljam device.

    Since the device blocks the signal from a car’s key fob while it is being transmitted, the unique code never reaches the owner’s car. The next time he or she presses the unlock button, a new code will be transmitted and it will successfully unlock the car. But that first code was never actually used, so the Rolljam can then transmit it at a later time and it will successfully unlock the target car.

    Kamkar’s device was used to successfully unlock cars made by Nissan, Cadillac, Ford, Toyota, Lotus, Volkswagen and Chrysler, and it also worked perfectly with a number of garage door openers, potentially giving the user access to a target’s home.

  • Russia’s ‘Vacuum Bombs’ Could Unleash Hell on Ukrainian Civilians, and Amount to a War Crime

    The TOS-1A heavy flamethrower system is meant to take on fortified enemy positions. Used against civilians, it would almost certainly amount to a war crime.

    Russian TOS-1A Heavy Flamethrower System

    One of Russia’s most deadly and controversial land weapons is the TOS-1A heavy flamethrower.

    • One of Russia’s most deadly and controversial land weapons is the TOS-1A heavy flamethrower.
    • It uses rockets with thermobaric weapons to destroy entrenched enemy troops.
    • Used in Ukraine’s cities, the weapons would do massive damage to military and civilian targets alike, including ordinary people taking shelter from the fighting.

    As Russia’s troops grow increasingly bogged down in their invasion of Ukraine, observers are concerned the Russian military could unleash one of its most devastating non-nuclear weapons in civilian areas: the TOS-1A heavy flamethrower system. Originally designed to destroy fortified NATO targets, the TOS-1A is designed to create shattering waves of searing heat and overpressure, killing enemy troops inside bunkers and other reinforced targets.

    The Russian Ground Forces have, until Monday, refrained from using heavy artillery in Ukraine’s urban areas. This has been an impediment to typical Russian combat operations, as Moscow’s military doctrine usually prescribes a liberal amount of artillery to batter the enemy before a ground assault. Although there have been numerous sightings of heavy Russian artillery pieces rolling into Ukraine—and reports that Moscow has already used thermobaric weapons against civilians—there have been no official confirmations yet.

    All of that may be about to change. Artillery bombardments of Ukrainian cities and towns are becoming increasingly common, with evidence of BM-30 Smerch 300-millimeter rockets, Grad-P 122-millimeter rockets, and other salvo-fired rocket systems in active use. The worst of all, however, is the TOS-1A. As the weapon’s state-owned exporter states in its marketing materials: “I will create hell for the enemy.” No lie detected.

    The TOS-1A is a weapon without equivalents in Western armies. TOS-1A and weapons like it are called “thermobaric” due to their use of extreme heat and pressure to incapacitate or kill. The Soviet Union first developed the TOS-1A in the 1970s as a weapon to fulfill the role of a flamethrower, destroying enemy troops in bunkers. At the time, most armies were shifting away from the traditional role of a flame-spurting flamethrower, but there was still a need for a weapon that could somehow reach through the narrow firing ports of a bunker or fighting position to neutralize the troops inside.

    A RUSSIAN GROUND FORCES T-90M AND TOS-1A TRAVEL DOWN TVERSKAYA STREET AFTER A VICTORY DAY MILITARY PARADE MARKING THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE VICTORY IN WORLD WAR I, JUNE 2020...
    A RUSSIAN GROUND FORCES T-90M AND TOS-1A TRAVEL DOWN TVERSKAYA STREET AFTER A VICTORY DAY MILITARY PARADE MARKING THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE VICTORY IN WORLD WAR I, JUNE 2020…

    The original vehicle, TOS-1, was designed to carry 30 rockets with a 220-millimeter diameter. Each rocket was packed with inert—but flammable—metal particles, dispersed in a cloud-like pattern at the target. Ideally, the airborne metallic particles filter into hard-to-reach places through firing ports in a bunker, crew hatches in armored vehicles, and cave entrances. The rocket then detonates the cloud, creating a deadly fireball.

    The explosion also has a powerful secondary effect: the generation of powerful positive, then negative, pressure waves. The quick succession of positive and negative pressure waves is why some call thermobaric weapons “vacuum bombs.” The pressure differential has a devastating effect on buildings, structures, and the human body—particularly the lungs. The U.S. Air Force’s Mother of All Bombs (MOAB), the world’s largest conventional bomb, similarly kills through overpressure, and in 2017 was dropped on an ISIS cave complex in Afghanistan.

    Russian servicemen load 200mm thermobaric warheads onto a TOS-1A vehicle
    RUSSIAN SERVICEMEN LOAD 200-MILLIMETER THERMOBARIC WARHEADS ONTO A TOS-1A VEHICLE..

    The modern version of TOS-1 is TOS-1A, also known as Solntsepek (Sun). The weapon still uses 220-millimeter rockets, but only carries 24 at a time. According to Rosoboronexport, the state company that markets and coordinates international arms sales, TOS-1A can launch its rockets just 90 seconds after coming to a full stop. It can fire all 24 rockets in six seconds, and a single vehicle can savage 40,000 square meters, the equivalent of almost ten acres. In addition to the Russian Ground Forces, armies in Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria also operate TOS-1As.

    Here’s a video that Russia’s Ministry of Defense uploaded to YouTube in 2019, showing the loading and firing of TOS-1As during an exercise:

    https://youtu.be/dqUXv0TlpDI
    Loading and Firing the TOS-1A

    TOS-1A’s effects against soldiers are horrifying enough, but against civilians it has the potential for mass slaughter. The dangers to unprotected civilians are obvious, but it can also damage (or even collapse) non-military buildings, killing or injuring those taking shelter inside.

    Two human rights organizations—London’s Amnesty International and New York City’s Human Rights Watch—have both claimed that Russia “appeared to have used widely banned cluster munitions, with Amnesty accusing them of attacking a preschool in northeastern Ukraine while civilians took shelter inside,” according to a February 28 report from Reuters, but those claims have not yet been verified.

    TOS-1A HEAVY FLAMETHROWERS TEST FIRING IN NORTH OSSETIA, RUSSIA, 2019. A SINGLE VEHICLE CAN DEVASTATE TEN SQUARE ACRES OF LAND.
    TOS-1A HEAVY FLAMETHROWERS TEST FIRING IN NORTH OSSETIA, RUSSIA, 2019. A SINGLE VEHICLE CAN DEVASTATE TEN SQUARE ACRES OF LAND..

    TOS-1A will devastate civilian populations in Ukraine if Russia uses it against them. Already, Russian rockets are raining down in urban areas in Kharkiv, a city in the eastern part of the country that has managed to hold out against Russian forces despite overwhelming odds. If Putin grows desperate, he might order his military to deploy TOS-1A and similar rocket systems as terror weapons in an attempt to break Ukraine’s morale.

    While such actions might have their intended effect, it would also broadly be considered a war crime, and land Putin and his administration in even deeper international trouble than it’s in now.


    BY KYLE MIZOKAMI MAR 1, 2022

  • THE COYOTE SANDBAG

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    The Coyote Sandbag:

    When a guy teabags and she bites his nuts to make him howl.
    “Man I need an ice pack… This bitch just gave me The Coyote Sandbag!

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    fomtooley coyote sandbag bone bridge guitar acoustic superior the best bone bridge there is classical guitar handmade nut strings string guitar guitars luthier repair replacement real bone handcrafted polished revolutionary new design reduces string breakage and tension and friction for better pure tone the absolute best bone nut you can get buy it now eat ny ass too boner nut by fom tooley
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  • Cosplay Outfit

    …maybe if you want to look like you made of wax…

  • Standby Switch Myth
    tube amplifier standby switch information

    It’s a long-standing debate about what the standby switches on Fender amps are used for. That’s why Sweetwater‘s own tube amp expert, Greg Bowers, decided to clear things up and end the debate once and for all. This is his story más o menos a few Fomedits:

    The Standby Switch

    The myth about the lowly standby switch on guitar amplifiers has gone on since they first came on the scene in the 1950s, so no wonder it is still misunderstood. You would think that by now with the internet around everyone would be up to speed, but the myth is too enduring! I have even read articles from educated people that I respect who have not quite gotten the whole story correct because of reasonable sounding, but incorrectly applied details about vacuum tubes. Then the myth gets distorted even more, because everyone thinks these people should know what they are talking about.

    These switches are notorious for causing weird problems and numerous questions from my customers like “Why does their amp pop when using it?” (they pop because they are switching anywhere from 300 to 800 volts. WOW!)I have merrily gone on repairing amplifiers over 20 years and decided to break down the mythology of standby switches based on what I know as a technician and amp builder to separate what is folklore and what is fact. At the very least, I would like to explain what standby switches are NOT used for. Here is what I learned repairing amps, doing research and reading history from much smarter people than myself.

    Tube Amp History

    Back in the 1940s -50’s there were no books or schools for making guitar amplifiers. Amplifying a guitar was a relatively new idea. Most great guitar amp companies were not founded by textbook electronic engineers or scientists, but smart service technicians who experimented with the recommended RCA vacuum tube circuits already published to get a better sounding or louder amplifier. This is true even to this day.

    Designers often push the limits of what a tube can handle to see if it will work past its conservatively rated parameters used for AM radios and Public Address amplifiers. This is kind of like what hot rodder’s do to cars. Special effects using very odd looking devices or circuits also find their way into designs. And yes, there are actual technical mistakes made by these self-trained designers that become accepted norm for a given model. So I learned to expect any reason could be possible for just why standby switches exist!

    It’s not a mute switch for breaks

    Historically, I have yet to see an amp made with standby switches until Leo Fender was around. He is accredited for first inventing the idea and I have no reason to doubt this. Leo Fender adopted the standby switch design from reading vacuum tube service manuals. He was self-trained in electronics and developed his own designs. Basically, his switch disconnects the high voltage from the circuit, but the big question is why?

    Leo Fender did not intend them for use during beer breaks as a mute switch (the biggest myth of all), even though this is what everyone thought he meant by the “standby” switch label and used them this way! A “mute” switch is a common switch often used on audio amplifiers but never designed the way Leo Fender’s “standby” switch is wired to the high voltage. A mute switch simply connects the audio signal to ground, stopping it from passing through the amplifier, just like turning the volume control all the way down.

    One should note the term “standby” has been used occasionally in place of the word “mute” on other switches that actually are audio “mute” switches for taking breaks, further adding to the public confusion. All guitar amplifier companies are infamous for incorrectly labeling or coming up with cute names for a switch’s function. Leo Fender also is known for mislabeling what technically is a tremolo circuit control as a “vibrato”. This is probably because he did not know how to play guitar? Maybe he could have come up with a better name than “standby” that is less confusing? Too late now…

    The addition of standby switches on tube amps is accredited to Leo Fender.
    The addition of standby switches on tube amps is accredited to Leo Fender.

    It’s not for protecting tubes

    Leo Fender did not use the standby switch to protect the tubes, because it actually is not good to have the tubes on a very long time in standby, which is a fact from the RCA tube manuals. There are so many people who get this part wrong. Beware advice given by some internet guru who was just regurgitating someone else’s myth that sounds technical, but is just wrong!

    This myth started with a misunderstanding of the old RCA tube manual recommendation for using standby switches when running very, very high voltage radio station transmitter tubes. RCA was NOT talking about the tubes used in a guitar amplifier. The tubes used in guitar amps are the same type tubes used in Grandma and Grandpa’s old tube radio receivers, TV’s and record players, etc., which you never see with standby switches, do you? Therefore, why would a guitar amplifier be different than these other devices? Because they are not! Fender’s first “Tweed” amplifiers also did not have a standby switch!

    For Leo Fender, tubes were cheap back then and actually made much stronger than tubes we have today, so why would he have this supposed concern for tube life? In order to get the tone he wanted, many of his designs are actually very hard on tubes pushing the limits of their power capabilities, therefore it stands to reason that tube life was not his concern.

    The standby switch on a Fender amp was put there by Leo to solve a problem he had later when building the much demanded larger power amplifiers using higher voltages to operate.

    Don’t leave your tube amp on standby for too long. It’s bad.
    Don’t leave your tube amp on standby for too long. It’s bad.

    The actual reason for standby switches

    It’s all about the capacitors!

    As the public asked for louder amplifiers, Leo Fender began to build amplifiers with higher power supply voltages. When first turning on the amplifier and before the tubes are warm, tubes do not conduct high voltage, so there is no “load” on the power supply. This phenomenon would allow voltage to rise above the maximum voltage rating for the large capacitors used in the circuit, putting them at risk of shorting out from the stress. This was especially true when Fender started to use solid state rectifier diodes that provided power supply voltage instantly when the mains power was turned on.

    While the tubes are warming up, the standby switch removed the high voltage from the circuit until the tubes filaments were warmed up to operating temperature and the power supply voltage would be loaded down by the tubes to the nominal safe operating voltage for the capacitors.

    Sure, Leo could have installed much higher voltage rated capacitors that could safely handle the voltage rise, but these were very expensive back in his day. His company’s goal was to produce high quality, but lower cost amplifiers (and guitars), so keeping the price down was important to him. Therefore, the standby switch was a cost-saving design feature much cheaper than the alternative very expensive capacitors.

    The standby switch removes high voltage from the circuit while the tubes warm up.
    The standby switch removes high voltage from the circuit while the tubes warm up.

    Takeaways

    In my experience, if you want your tubes and the other parts of the amplifier to last longer, put a small fan on the amplifier to get the heat out of it. Excess heat is the greatest problem, so only have the amp on when you need it. Let’s review the takeaways.

    There are occasionally a few modern amplifier designs that are taking the problems with conventional plate voltage standby switches into consideration and have put in safer systems for tube warm up purposes. To be fair, these systems do not cause the same potential problems as the old fashioned standby switches. If you have one of these amps, the use of the standby switch may not be causing any harm. You will simply have to inquire about your amps features to know what is used.

    However, I still refer to other much smarter engineers than I, including the RCA tube manual which do not list any standby switches in the recommended design of receiving tube power supplies. Don’t expect your tubes to last longer using them.

    Don’t use it as a “beer break” switch. For short breaks, simply turn down the volume control (or mute switch if you have one) and don’t use the standby switch, so there is not that nasty pop in the house sound system that could damage speaker drivers. If the time between sound check and performing is longer than 20 minutes, turn the amplifier completely off. You only need 5 minutes at the most to completely warm up a tube amplifier.

    It’s as simple as that. Why else would you use something that often pops loudly in the audio when used (remember I mentioned it cuts off the high voltage)? By the way, other brands did not use standby switches until Marshall copied Fender’s Bassman amplifier design and after the two biggest makers used these standby switches, everyone assumed you always had one on a guitar amp. Often, designers put these on amplifiers only because the public asks for them, not that they are needed. This is due to the power of the myth! These days we have other devices available to protect the capacitors and in general capacitors are much cheaper now and can be made to run at higher voltages without great cost.

    Don’t put one on your amp because you were told it makes the tubes last longer! Is there a way to help my tubes last longer you say? The correct understanding of vacuum tube operational specifications prove there is no evidence that a standby switch can make your tubes last longer and actually could only hurt them if you overuse the standby mode.

  • Patrick Scheidegger on Quora
    www.quora.com/profile/Patrick-Scheidegger-4
  • How Apple’s AirTags were HACKED
    https://youtu.be/_E0PWQvW-14
  • Voyager Records Sounds of Interstellar Space
    youtu.be/0dSlb3as9J0
  • Not a Gibson, but here’s a review of a new Epiphone Olympic – Gibson Custom – Gibson Brands Forums
    Heres a recording and review that I had put on the Gibson Acoustic and Epiphone Acoustic forums of my new Epiphone Olympic archtop…that I thought I would share with the Archtop section of the forum. The new Olympic is a mass produced (in Indonesia) acoustic-electric archtop that pays homage to … — Read on forum.gibson.com/topic/133843-not-a-gibson-but-heres-a-review-of-a-new-epiphone-olympic/
  • Understanding ABY Switchers – Radial Engineering
    Understanding ABY Switchers – Radial Engineering — Read on www.radialeng.com/blog/understanding-aby-switchers
  • (no title)
  • Mysic Theory
  • (no title)
    www.facebook.com/groups/172423852946356/permalink/1559641390891255/
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    www.instagram.com/p/CMvFcAcgNTj/
  • FIREGLO
    Rickenbacker 330 Electric Guitar in Fireglo

  • PPA – Defending the Copyright
    PPA Do you know that sick feeling you get when you see someone has used your #photography without your permission? Without paying you for your work? That’s called #copyright infringement, and you can help create a process to DO something about it! Today. Right now. Take 30 seconds and send a pre-written letter (you can read it and make changes!) to your representative in Congress: PPA.com/SmallClaims It’s time to create an affordable process to deal with copyright infringement!

    If you want to be the best, you belong with PPA.

    Join a community that understands your goals and challenges and meet colleagues who want to see you succeed.


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    Protection for PPA members

    We are here to protect you at all times, on all fronts. PPA membership has been carefully crafted to help photographers make more and spend less. Have peace of mind knowing your gear is protected with our equipment insurance policy, included with every membership, and eliminate the hassle of getting quotes by purchasing everything a la carte. In the long run, it actually costs you to not be with PPA!

    #CASEact #MySkillsPayBills

    To find out more or join the PPA, please follow the info or link below!

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    PPA – Professional Photographers of America 229 Peachtree St. NE, Suite 2300 Atlanta, GA 30303 800.786.6277
  • A DIY valve overdrive pedal – Goldie

    Originally posted on Dave Mac’s Window on the World: In an amongst the guitar building I decided to break out the soldering iron to build an …

    A DIY valve overdrive pedal
  • Ressence’s Type 3 Watch

    At 30 large this isn’t a watch any of us mortals will be buying anytime soon, but the design of the Ressence Type 3 is fascinating enough that you’ll want to take a look. First off you’ll notice there’s no crown; all adjustments are made on the back of the watch, which is actually a series of concentric dials.

    As if that wasn’t cool enough, take a close look at the display:

    It practically looks like the graphics are projected onto that curved surface, no? Reading the description of how they pulled that off clues you in as to why the price tag is so lofty.

    The indications and their mechanisms are mounted inside a bubble crafted from extremely tough, anti-reflective sapphire crystal. The complication and indications follow the shape of the crystal.

    The mechanism (28 gears, 57 jewels 🤯 ) is enclosed in an upper compartment filled with a naphtha-type liquid that has a more similar index of refraction to the sapphire crystal than air does. Refraction bends light when it passes from one material to another, e.g. air-to-glass or glass-to-air. With the fluid-filled dial indications, refraction is greatly minimised, which tricks the brain into seeing the dial in two-dimensions rather than three. A thermal valve automatically adjusts for any expansion or contraction of the fluid. For $30,000 I’d like a guy in a tuxedo to follow me around with a flashlight, illuminating the dial whenever I raise my wrist in a dim environment. Instead Ressence uses Super-LumiNova, a non-radioactive, non-toxic photoluminescent pigment manufactured in Japan, for the engraved indications.

    Oh yeah, and they’re only making 50 of these.

    ᴡʀɪᴛᴛᴇɴ ʙʏ: ʀᴀɪɴ ɴᴏᴇ

  • What saddens a narcissist?

    LOSING GRADE A SUPPLY.

    I will try to explain…

    A narc can feel sadness but the experience of feeling sad is extremely stunted and restricted.

    Sadness serves a purpose. It’s a feeling we all try to avoid but it’s inevitable and a part of life. Sadness rarely ends with sadness. It’s followed with a lot of reflection and maybe internalizing what caused us to feel sad. It’s a loss of something or someone. It brings about memories and puts things into perspective. Healthy minded people are able to process their sadness and discover what really matters to them, what’s important, what isn’t and maybe how they contributed to some of their own sadness.

    A narc can’t do this. Their sadness starts at I feel sorry for me and stays at I feel sorry for me. That’s it. They don’t feel sad for a situation and they don’t feel sad for someone else. They don’t reflect and internalize their sadness. They don’t move past the sadness ……well not entirely true, it moves to, how dare you!


    What makes a narc sad?


    THE LOSS OF GRADE A SUPPLY. Especially if the grade A supply left them first and goes no contact. They will feel very sorry and sad for themselves. Don’t be confused though, they are not sad at losing the person, they are sad at losing the way the supply made them feel and look. They are sad they have lost that high end hit. If they can’t replace their grade A supply through another target, they will feel sorry for themselves.

    As degrading as it sounds, narcs have their supply ranked as what gives them the most high. They have smaller hits from lower rank and higher hits from higher rank. Some of their supply is on standby for when they’re more desperate and can’t get the more fulfilling hit…imagine like they can’t get their favourite ice cream because it’s temporarily out of stock so they’ll settle for a generic hit until they can get the high end hit later.

    Narcs are not going to ever be ok with losing any supply really BUT losing their grade A supply will make them sad. Again, don’t be confused, their sadness is not genuine out of love, care or concern…..it’s all about them. They are not capable of feeling sad for the people that they hurt.

    ᴡʀɪᴛᴛᴇɴ ʙʏ: ᴛʀᴀᴄʏ ʜᴇʀʀɪᴍᴀɴ

  • What saddens a narcissist?

    LOSING GRADE A SUPPLY.

    I will try to explain…

    A narc can feel sadness but the experience of feeling sad is extremely stunted and restricted.

    Sadness serves a purpose. It’s a feeling we all try to avoid but it’s inevitable and a part of life. Sadness rarely ends with sadness. It’s followed with a lot of reflection and maybe internalizing what caused us to feel sad. It’s a loss of something or someone. It brings about memories and puts things into perspective. Healthy minded people are able to process their sadness and discover what really matters to them, what’s important, what isn’t and maybe how they contributed to some of their own sadness.

    A narc can’t do this. Their sadness starts at I feel sorry for me and stays at I feel sorry for me. That’s it. They don’t feel sad for a situation and they don’t feel sad for someone else. They don’t reflect and internalize their sadness. They don’t move past the sadness ……well not entirely true, it moves to, how dare you!


    What makes a narc sad?


    THE LOSS OF GRADE A SUPPLY. Especially if the grade A supply left them first and goes no contact. They will feel very sorry and sad for themselves. Don’t be confused though, they are not sad at losing the person, they are sad at losing the way the supply made them feel and look. They are sad they have lost that high end hit. If they can’t replace their grade A supply through another target, they will feel sorry for themselves.

    As degrading as it sounds, narcs have their supply ranked as what gives them the most high. They have smaller hits from lower rank and higher hits from higher rank. Some of their supply is on standby for when they’re more desperate and can’t get the more fulfilling hit…imagine like they can’t get their favourite ice cream because it’s temporarily out of stock so they’ll settle for a generic hit until they can get the high end hit later.

    Narcs are not going to ever be ok with losing any supply really BUT losing their grade A supply will make them sad. Again, don’t be confused, their sadness is not genuine out of love, care or concern…..it’s all about them. They are not capable of feeling sad for the people that they hurt.

    ᴡʀɪᴛᴛᴇɴ ʙʏ: ᴛʀᴀᴄʏ ʜᴇʀʀɪᴍᴀɴ

  • Ferrite Transformer Turns
    • Ferrite core turns ratio calculation 
    • Push pull topology ferrite core turns ratio calculation with example 
    • Ferrite transformer primary turns calculation
    • Ferrite transformer secondary turns calculation

    In this article you will learn how to calculate turns ratio of ferrite core transformer for high frequency switch mode power supply inverters. High ferrite core transformers are used in almost every power electronics circuits like invertersand pure sine wave inverters. They are used to boost up or step up low dc voltage of battery and other dc sources like solar panels. Ferrite core transformers are also used in isolated dc to dc converters to step up or step down dc voltage. For example in isolated buck converter it is used to step down dc voltage and in isolated boost converter, they are used to step up dc voltage. In this article, we will learn how to calculate turns ratio of high frequency ferrite core transformer with examples.

    Ferrite core turns ratio calculation 

    For example in boost up stage we have two options to use from power electronics converters, push pull topology and full bridge. I will explain both methods one by one.  Turns ratio calculation formula and concept remains same for both topologies. The only difference between push pull topology and full bridge transformer design is that push pull ferrite core transformerrequires a center tap in primary winding. In other words, push pull transformer have two times primary turn than full bridge transformer.

    Push pull topology ferrite core turns ratio calculation with example 

    Let’s start with example. For example we want to design a 250 watt boost up dc to dc converter. We are using push pull topology for this design. We are using 12 volt battery. We want to step up dc voltage from 12 volt 310 volt. Switching frequency of design is 50KHz. We are using ETD39 ferrite core which can handle 250 watt. It is beyond the scope of this topic to tell how to select ferrite core according to power rating. I will try to write separate article on it.  The output of ferrite core will be always high frequency square wave of 50 KHz. We need to use full rectifier to convert it into dc of 310 volt. You may also need to use LC filter to harmonics or AC components from output.

    Ferrite Transformer Turns CalculationFerrite Transformer Turns Calculation

    Ferrite transformer primary turns calculation

    As you know battery voltage does not remain same all the time.  As the load on battery on increases, battery voltage will be less than 12 volt. With no load with fully charged battery, battery voltage will be near to 13.5 volt.  Therefore input voltage is not constant, we must consider it while calculating turns ratio of ferrite core transformer. Cut off voltage for battery is usually 10.5 volt.  We can take it as smallest possible value of input voltage to boost up dc converter. So we have following parameters now:

    Vinput = 10.5 volt

    Vout = 310 volt

    As we know that formula of turns ratio calculation in transformer is

    N = Npri / Nsc = Vin / Vout

    Where Npri is number of primary turns and Nsc is number of secondary turns. We have three know variables like turns ratio which can be calculated by above equation, input voltage and output voltage. But we need to calculate primary turns to find secondary turn of ferrite core transformer. Formula to calculate primary turns for ferrite core transformer is given below:

    Npri = Vin * 10^8 / 4 * f * Bmax * Ac

    But for push pull it will be half the primary number of turns.

    • Where Npi is primary number of turn, Vin( nom) is normal input voltage which in our example is 10.5 volt.
    • Bmax is maximum flux density. The unit of maximum flux density is Guass. Remember if you are using Tesla unit for maximum flux density, IT = 10^4 Guass. The value of maximum flux density is usually given in data sheet ferrite core. We usually take value of Bmax between 1300G to 2000G.  This is usually a acceptable range for all ferrite core transformers.  Note : High value of flux density will saturate the core and low value of flux density will lead to core under utilization. For example we will take 1500G for dc to dc converter example.
    • f is switching frequency converter. In our example switching frequency of dc to dc converter is 50 KHz.
    • Ac is effective cross sectional area of ferrite core. We have to refer data sheet for this value. In this example, we are using ETD39 core. The effective cross sectional area of ETD39 is 125mm^2 or 1.25cm^2.

    We have all the values to calculate primary number of turns .i.e.

    Vin = 10.5 volt, Bmax = 1500G, f = 50 KHz, Ac = 1.25 cm^2

    By putting these parameters in two above formula, we can calculate turns primary number of turns.

    Npri = 12 . 10^8 / 4 . 50000 . 1500 . 1.25  = 3.2

    Hence Npri  = 3.2 But we cannot use fractional turns. So we need to round off primary turns calculated value into nearest whole number 3. The nearest possible whole number is 3. primary number of turns for ferrite core is 3. But before that we need check either for Npri = 3 Bmax is within acceptable range or not. As I have mentioned above the acceptable range for Bmaz is 1300-2000G. But the question is why we need to check the value of Bmax again? Because we adjust the value of primary turns from 3.2 to 3. So let’s calculate value of Bmax for Npri = 3 by using above forumla.

    Bmax = Vin * 10^8 / 4 * f * Npri * Ac

    Bmax = 12 * 10^8 / 5 * 50000 * 3 * 1.25 = 1600G

    So calculated value of Bmax is 1600G which is within acceptable range of maximum flux density. Its mean we can take Npri = 3 for further calculations. Primary number of turns for push pull ferrite center tap transformer is 3 turns + 3 turns. In any design you will need to adjust the value of Npri if it is in fraction. You can easily adjust it. But you need to check value of Bmax every time. We start with assume value of Bmax and calculated Npri. But you can also start with assume value of Npri and check the value of maximum flux density Bmax. For example suppose a value of Npri =1 and check the value of Bmax and keep repeating this process, until it is become in acceptable range.

    Ferrite transformer secondary turns calculation

    Now let’s move to secondary turn of ferrite core. In our design the output of dc to dc converter is 310 volt at any input voltage. Input voltage is variable from 10.5 volt to 13.5 volt. We will need to implement

    Feedback to get regulated 310 output voltage. So we will take little bit higher value of output voltage so that at minimum possible input we can still get output voltage of 310 volt by changing the duty cycle of PWM. So we should design a ferrite core transformer with secondary rated at 330 volt.  Feedback will adjust the value of output voltage by changing the duty cycle of PWM.  You should also take care of losses and voltage drops across switching devices and you should take them into account while designing transformer.

    So transformer must be able to supply 330 volt output with input of 13.5 volt to 10.5 volt.  The maximum duty cycle for PWM is 98% and rest 2% is left for dead time. During minimum possible input voltage duty cycle will be maximum.  At maximum duty cycle of 98%, input voltage to transformer is 0.98 * 10.5 = 10.29 volt.

    By using voltage ratio formula of transformer = voltage ratio = 330 / 10.29 = 32.1. Voltage ratio and turns ratio in transformer is equal to each other. Hence N = 32.

    So we know all values to calculate secondary turns of ferrite core transformer.

    N = 32, Npri = 3

    Nsec = N * Npri = 32 *3 = 96

    So number of primary turns is equal to 3 and number of secondary turns is equal to 96. So it is all about turns ratio calculation for high frequency transformers. If you have any issue, let me know with your comments.

  • (no title)
    © p. scheidegger 2021
  • DIY ‘77 Vintage Phaser Pedal

    Fom Tooley presents:

    A classic circuit from the magazine Everyday Electronics (December 1977 issue).
    Build your own boutique pedal for a fraction of the cost. A separate plan of the PCB is included as the final image (6 of 6). If you build it, they will come. If you build it, please post your construction and completed photos to fomtooley.com


    1 of 6
    2 of 6
    3 of 6
    4 of 6
    5 of 6
    6 of 6

  • Teisco Rexina
    reverb.com/item/16654206-rexina-teisco-60s-sunburst
  • Fom Tooley Weather v.2.2
    Fom Tooley Weather Widget Version 2.2DOWNLOAD FOM TOOLEY WEATHER VERSION 2.2
    widgetopia.io/widget/sSNWeegful3
  • RADIOHEAD: Club Ciudad, Buenos Aires

    https://youtu.be/Yg_PkILY6EE




  • COVID-19 – DIY Projects for Arduino beginners

    The aim of this video is to inspire electronic engineers, hobbyists, STEM students to spend their time at homes working on different creative …

    COVID-19 – DIY Projects for Arduino beginners
  • MosLike Vibrato with Mosrite Spec Bridge Assembly
    MosLike Vibrato with Mosrite Spec Bridge Assembly​ Vibrato for Electric Guitar
    This Vibrato is inspired by the Mosrite Moseley which is considered by guitar aficionados to be one of the best Vibratos ever made. It is known for it’s lower tension compared with other vibratos. It has complete tuning stability. This hard to find Vibrato is a top quality part for guitar builders. It is a system that is at home on Mosrite style builds as well as today’s guitars.  You’ll use your Tremolo more because you stay in tune  Includes a Mosrite Bridge, adjustment Posts, Mounting screws, Nylon washer and 2 springs for light and heavy gauge strings  You’ll use your Tremolo more because you stay in tune  *Check Dimensions  73mm center to center of post holes Base Front holes-73mm. Back holes-67mm. Front to back-61mm. to E spacing 2 ” 18mm wide front to back-approx. 5/8″ 55mm From E to E-approx. 2 3/16″ String height is about 3/4″ 9″ Radius  We recommend T9 Lubricant and Super V Superglide Nut Lubricant  Designed in collaboration between seasoned musicians and instrument parts designers, united by a common goal of creating a high quality parts for musical instruments.

  • Fom Tooley Weather
    Fom Tooley Weather Widget
  • GRETSCH ControFuzz Circuit Layout
    Gretsch ControFuzz DIY guitar pedal layout circuit fuzz stompbox

    Gretsch ControFuzz DIY guitar pedal circuit board layout
    Printed Circuit Layout

    Gretsch ControFuzz by Gretsch Instruments

    Fom Tooley

  • Review: Seeed Studio Miniature Soldering Iron
    By Harry Baggens (lol)
    Review: Seeed Studio miniature soldering ironSeeed Studio miniature soldering iron
    The Chinese company Seeed Studio offers a lot of interesting things for electronics enthusiasts. Along with selling products from various manufacturers, Seeed develops and produces their own products, many of which are very innovative. For instance, a year ago we had a close look at the DSO Nano V3 miniature oscilloscope. Seeed has also developed their own miniature soldering iron, which is now available in a European version. The unique thing about this soldering iron is that a display and the control circuitry are integrated into the grip. From the photos and Seeed’s description, it looked like a good idea for us to get our hands on one and try it out in the Elektor Labs. Along with the soldering iron and the associated tip and AC power adapter, the box contains a power cable, a grounding wire with a clip’, an Allen wrench and some spare tips. The miniature soldering iron is compact (16.8 x 1.65cm) and looks more like a fat fountain pen than a soldering iron. The grip is made from plastic with a sturdy feel. A small OLED display and two pushbuttons are located on the side of the grip (or is it the top?). The tip slides into the front of the grip and is secured by tightening a small screw with the included Allen wrench. At the rear of the grip there is a power connector and a micro-USB connector for connection to a PC. The soldering iron has a rated power of 40W with the included AC power adapter. You can optionally connect a higher-capacity power supply (max. 24V). That boosts the power to 65W.
    Seeed Studio miniature soldering iron shown with power adapter
    After you switch on the power, some messages initially appear on the OLED display, and after you press one of the buttons the preset temperature of 300˚C is displayed. The display is small but easy to read, but unfortunately the information on the display cannot be flipped for left-handed users. The miniature iron heats up quickly – the temperature rose from 20˚C to 300˚C in about 15 seconds. You can use the two buttons to select a different temperature (up to a maximum of 400˚C), but unfortunately the selected value is not saved for the next time you use the iron. If the iron is not used for three minutes, the control circuitry reduces the temperature to 200˚C and the iron remains in sleep mode until it is moved again (apparently it has an integrated motion sensor).The soldering iron is small, light, comfortable and easy to use. The power cable could be a bit more flexible, but that is of course difficult to change when you use a standard AC power adapter. We also did not test the power cable for heat resistance, which is a standard feature with a normal soldering iron. The included soldering iron tip has a fairly fine point and is suitable for most typical soldering tasks with leaded components. It can also be used with relatively large SMD components, but for finer work a tip with a narrower point would be desirable.The iron can also be connected to a computer through a micro-USB cable. The computer recognizes the soldering iron as a USB drive containing a file with the name CONFIG.TXT. After opening this file in Notepad, we saw a number of lines of text with various settings for operating temperature, standby temperature, wait time for standby and some other parameters. These values can be changed and then the file can be saved, after which the iron will use the new values the next time. The software is open source, so you could also modify or extend it as desired.This miniature soldering iron is very handy as a complement to your regular soldering iron. It is small and easy to take with you. The soldering performance is very good, and on top of that you can program it according to your wishes. With a price of around 100 euros, the iron is not exactly low-cost, but when an Elektor designer says he would like to buy one for home use, you know it’s worth the money.
  • Guitar Center is BROKE – just like all of it’s customer’s …
    Guitar Center to give all money to the band Fom Tooley
    WE BROKE YALL
    OUR BAD!
  • Mass Sterilization Of Uighur Women, Forced Labor & Re-Education Camps | China’s Tactics Of Decimation

    Photographer and Videographer Natacha de Mahieu  is the Edge of Humanity Magazine contributor of this documentary photography.  From the project ‘Far…

    Mass Sterilization Of Uighur Women, Forced Labor & Re-Education Camps | China’s Tactics Of Decimation
  • Surreal Cityscapes

    NO MIDDLEMAN ART GALLERY     A space created to connect artists DIRECTLY with potential buyers. The gallery is not a mall, but a place where one can …

    Surreal Cityscapes
  • Covid Diary pp. 19-20

    Dear Diary, I still can’t kick the habit of eating off of a knife. I remember my mother would get mad every time she saw me do it. I’d listen to …

    Covid Diary pp. 19-20
  • Include Video To Your Website Or Blog To Increase Its Value

    For many years we’ve heard a lot about how to provide your website more worth. Initially everybody stated to put great deals of fascinating details …

    Include Video To Your Website Or Blog To Increase Its Value
  • Flying free!

    We are excited to share that another owl has left the nest! Thank you to Kate for her support in our Alchemist’s Studio adventure! So what is it like…

    Flying free!
  • COVID-19’s Unfading Presence Hovering Like A Ghost | Coronavirus’ Days

    Street Photographer and Visual Artist Federico Righi is the Edge of Humanity Magazine contributor of this photo essay.  From the project ‘Covid 19 — …

    COVID-19’s Unfading Presence Hovering Like A Ghost | Coronavirus’ Days
  • NO MIDDLEMAN ART GALLERY | New Artworks | Social Allegories

    Artwork By VINCENT LACROIX   A Parisian painter at the confluence of the “surrealist”, “expressionist” and “pop art” movements. Expressionist in …

    NO MIDDLEMAN ART GALLERY | New Artworks | Social Allegories
  • How To Use eBay Auctions To Drive Traffic To Your Site

    Numerous eBay auction sellers rely just on eBay for creating 100% of their online earnings. If you feel you are one of these individuals, these are …

    How To Use eBay Auctions To Drive Traffic To Your Site
  • A DIY valve overdrive pedal – Goldie

    In an amongst the guitar building I decided to break out the soldering iron to build an overdrive pedal – as light relief. I had stumbled across the “Valvecaster” schematic and layout at Beavis Audio. This is a very simple circuit that uses a 12AU7 valve, running at a low voltage. Because it is running […]

    A DIY valve overdrive pedal – Goldie
  • “do drugs too”
    • Digital Artwork
    • Pantone on Transparent Background
    • 2020

    FOM Tooley

    © Patrick Scheidegger 2020

  • Fom Tooley!

  • ME AND MY ASSHOLE


  • How to read Capacitor values.
    how to read capacitor values fom tooley

    Fom Tooley capacitor values

    fom tooley how to read capacitor values

    how to read capacitor values

  • Pussy Tank!
    A cat inside a crude military tank looking out the top. goo.gl/maps/iRn6SjmPPCU1HS3f8

    PUSSY TANK

  • ZVex Fuzz Factory – Guitar Effect Pedal – Stripboard Layout – Unverified

    Stripboard layout for the guitar pedal named “FUZZ FACTORY” that is made by  ZVex. This is a circuit diagram used in creating a CLONE of the original overpriced guitar effect pedal. This pedal does FUZZ of course...  this pedal layout has not been checked yet, so is currently unverified by Fom Tooley.
    Stripboard layout for Fuzz Factory

    Stripboard Layout for Super Duper 2-in-1 by ZVex

    “If you build it, they will come…”

    -Field of Dreams




    @patrickscheidegger

  • (no title)

    https://www.quora.com/q/ntbmtesbccvbyhzj?invite_code=QShOyDVEwX0toF8wjvGZ

  • Fom remembers Bowie…



  • Rolling Stones REJECTED by Fom Tooley!!!

    Mick Jagger is in a old Vox Amplifier print advertisement in black and white. And he has his mouth open like a frog. And he looks STUPID. AND MICK JAGGER IS A TOTAL ASSHOLE....
    A TOTAL ASSHOLE.


    Mick Jagger and The Rolling Stones SUCK ASS…

    But Keith, you cool.


    Fom Tooley 2020

  • Transistor 123
  • // welcome “MAMA”…
    Alex presents Snow White with a glass of MOLOKO, freshly-laced with adrenachrome, an age old custom that promotes Snow to a “MAMA” in the gang of SAVAGES. After nearly three years of being held hostage as a sex slave, Snow now has the position of the matriarch. Her fat ass will be thanking her tonight as the hourly anal rape will finally subside. She now has a obligation to the SAVAGES, which includes hourly blowjobs and breast milk for everyone!
    Alex presents Snow White with a glass of MOLOKO, freshly-laced with adrenachrome, an age old custom that promotes Snow to a “MAMA” in the gang of SAVAGES. After nearly three years of being held hostage as a sex slave, Snow now has the position of the matriarch. Her fat ass will be thanking her tonight as the hourly anal rape will finally subside. She now has a obligation to the SAVAGES, which includes hourly blowjobs and breast milk for everyone!
  • Help out poor Fom…

    By the way… Which one’s Fom?


    click to help both yourself and fom with $25 FREE credit towards WordPress…

    http://wordpress.com/refer-a-friend/Ro1WApjsJo1AKMpG38Mk

  • “fuck you guys…”

    © patrick scheidegger 2020

    www.behance.net/gallery/102562907/fuck-you-guys

    © patrick scheidegger 2020
  • // toolin


    aka “somebody made another fag maschine…”
  • WATERMELON UKULELE
    https://p-scheidegger.tumblr.com/post/624309827947167744/watermelon-ukulele-princeton-
    © patrick scheidegger 2020
  • “do drugs”
    Patrick Scheidegger
    © Patrick Scheidegger 2020

    © patrick scheidegger 2020

  • HEATHKIT 55 WATT TUBE AMPLIFIER SCHEMATIC
    HEATHKIT 55 WATT TUBE AMPLIFIER SCHEMATIC HEATHKIT 55 WATT TUBE AMPLIFIER SCHEMATIC
    © patrick scheidegger 2020
  • ALL THINGS RASPBERRY PI
    ALL THINGS RASPBERRY PI © Patrick Scheidegger, M.F.A. 2020 All Rights Reserved. https://pin.it/4kd6pYh
  • choad.
    PENGUIN CHOAD FOM TOOLEY PATRICK SCHEIDEGGER
    {“source”:”picsart_share_screen”,”effects_tried”:0,”photos_added”:0,”origin”:”gallery”,”total_effects_actions”:0,”remix_data”:[],”tools_used”:{“tilt_shift”:0,”resize”:0,”adjust”:0,”curves”:0,”motion”:0,”perspective”:0,”clone”:0,”crop”:1,”enhance”:0,”selection”:0,”free_crop”:0,”flip_rotate”:0,”shape_crop”:0,”stretch”:0},”total_draw_actions”:0,”total_editor_actions”:{“border”:0,”frame”:0,”mask”:0,”lensflare”:0,”clipart”:0,”text”:0,”square_fit”:0,”shape_mask”:0,”callout”:0},”source_sid”:”7FA83AE7-7A8E-4953-81AB-AAB7909763C9_1575653259126″,”total_editor_time”:243,”total_draw_time”:0,”effects_applied”:0,”uid”:”7FA83AE7-7A8E-4953-81AB-AAB7909763C9_1575653259122″,”total_effects_time”:0,”brushes_used”:0,”height”:758,”layers_used”:0,”width”:1125,”subsource”:”done_button”} © patrick scheidegger 2020
  • Nashville Numbering System

    pin.it/o8T3l1F


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