The Matic is the most sought-after collection for underwater enthusiasts, not only for the functionality of the product but also for the cutting-edge production techniques, guaranteed to meet needs of even the most demanding divers.
From the bright shades of the dials to the applied indexes, all the details are designed to captivate with a perfect harmony of colors that shimmer underwater. Beginning with the iconic Squale case back, the introduction of some structural changes has made possible the creation of a watch that performs even better, allowing you to reach a depth of 600 meters below sea level.
Not just a functional tool, but a watch for life…
Domed sapphire crystal
To retain water resistance up to 60 atmospheres, the watch is equipped with a double-domed sapphire crystal that allows for better performance. Despite the curvature, legibility is always perfect from any angle, thanks to the anti-reflective coating.
Bezel insert with applied indexes
The bezel insert is the distinguishing element par excellence of the Matic collection. Starting from a steel disc, the semi-finished product undergoes a lacquering process. Next, the indicators are applied, and finally the whole thing is covered in a transparent varnish, giving it a smooth and resistant finish.
Used in Ukraine’s cities, the weapons would do massive damage to military and civilian targets alike, including ordinary people taking shelter from the fighting.
As Russia’s troops grow increasingly bogged down in their invasion of Ukraine, observers are concerned the Russian military could unleash one of its most devastating non-nuclear weapons in civilian areas: the TOS-1A heavy flamethrower system. Originally designed to destroy fortified NATO targets, the TOS-1A is designed to create shattering waves of searing heat and overpressure, killing enemy troops inside bunkers and other reinforced targets.
The Russian Ground Forces have, until Monday, refrained from using heavy artillery in Ukraine’s urban areas. This has been an impediment to typical Russian combat operations, as Moscow’s military doctrine usually prescribes a liberal amount of artillery to batter the enemy before a ground assault. Although there have been numerous sightings of heavy Russian artillery pieces rolling into Ukraine—and reports that Moscow has already used thermobaric weapons against civilians—there have been no official confirmations yet.
The TOS-1A is a weapon without equivalents in Western armies. TOS-1A and weapons like it are called “thermobaric” due to their use of extreme heat and pressure to incapacitate or kill. The Soviet Union first developed the TOS-1A in the 1970s as a weapon to fulfill the role of a flamethrower, destroying enemy troops in bunkers. At the time, most armies were shifting away from the traditional role of a flame-spurting flamethrower, but there was still a need for a weapon that could somehow reach through the narrow firing ports of a bunker or fighting position to neutralize the troops inside.
The original vehicle, TOS-1, was designed to carry 30 rockets with a 220-millimeter diameter. Each rocket was packed with inert—but flammable—metal particles, dispersed in a cloud-like pattern at the target. Ideally, the airborne metallic particles filter into hard-to-reach places through firing ports in a bunker, crew hatches in armored vehicles, and cave entrances. The rocket then detonates the cloud, creating a deadly fireball.
The explosion also has a powerful secondary effect: the generation of powerful positive, then negative, pressure waves. The quick succession of positive and negative pressure waves is why some call thermobaric weapons “vacuum bombs.” The pressure differential has a devastating effect on buildings, structures, and the human body—particularly the lungs. The U.S. Air Force’s Mother of All Bombs (MOAB), the world’s largest conventional bomb, similarly kills through overpressure, and in 2017 was dropped on an ISIS cave complex in Afghanistan.
The modern version of TOS-1 is TOS-1A, also known as Solntsepek (Sun). The weapon still uses 220-millimeter rockets, but only carries 24 at a time. According to Rosoboronexport, the state company that markets and coordinates international arms sales, TOS-1A can launch its rockets just 90 seconds after coming to a full stop. It can fire all 24 rockets in six seconds, and a single vehicle can savage 40,000 square meters, the equivalent of almost ten acres. In addition to the Russian Ground Forces, armies in Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria also operate TOS-1As.
Here’s a video that Russia’s Ministry of Defense uploaded to YouTube in 2019, showing the loading and firing of TOS-1As during an exercise:
TOS-1A’s effects against soldiers are horrifying enough, but against civilians it has the potential for mass slaughter. The dangers to unprotected civilians are obvious, but it can also damage (or even collapse) non-military buildings, killing or injuring those taking shelter inside.
Two human rights organizations—London’s Amnesty International and New York City’s Human Rights Watch—have both claimed that Russia “appeared to have used widely banned cluster munitions, with Amnesty accusing them of attacking a preschool in northeastern Ukraine while civilians took shelter inside,” according to a February 28 report from Reuters, but those claims have not yet been verified.
TOS-1A will devastate civilian populations in Ukraine if Russia uses it against them. Already, Russian rockets are raining down in urban areas in Kharkiv, a city in the eastern part of the country that has managed to hold out against Russian forces despite overwhelming odds. If Putin grows desperate, he might order his military to deploy TOS-1A and similar rocket systems as terror weapons in an attempt to break Ukraine’s morale.
While such actions might have their intended effect, it would also broadly be considered a war crime, and land Putin and his administration in even deeper international trouble than it’s in now.
Tools to Create a Bug-Free Backyard, According to Expert Bobbi Dempsey
PM: What’s your preferred design for bug zappers?
B.D: I tend to like the lantern-style models because they are versatile, offer more options for placement, and often have a decorative look that allows them to blend in discreetly. I’ve also used hanging light models and liked them fine. I’m not a huge fan of handheld models because they involve continuous effort and also require close contact with bugs.
PM: What’s one feature you always prioritize when searching for a new bug zappers?
B.D.: I prefer bug zappers that are as quiet as possible. I’m not a fan of loud zapping noises. Unfortunately, it can be tough to gauge exactly how loud a bug zapper is until you actually use it. This is another reason why I appreciate bug zappers with a large coverage area—that way, you can set it up far from where you’ll be gathering, so the noise won’t be as much of an issue.
PM: What other products do you rely on for warding off bugs?
B.D.: I’m not a fan of harsh chemicals or toxic materials in general, so I try to opt for natural pest repellents whenever possible. I use citronella candles and essential oils such as peppermint. When using bug sprays and similar pesticides, I look for products made from plant-based ingredients. I also use diatomaceous earth as an effective, long-acting way to kill any insects that might get inside the home or garage.
Are there any regulations that prohibit bug zappers that:
1. Use UV and/or other forms of light over a certain brightness? For example, a UV light with the brightness of your average dusk-to-dawn light.
⚡︎ AND/OR ⚡︎
2. Use high voltage (above around 10,000V) with or without high current? And would there be any advantages of being able to zap insects with high power, such as reduction in “sizzle” noise?
⚡︎ AND/OR ⚡︎
3. Utilize a power grid over a certain size? Such that if a typical bug zapper uses 10 square inches: using a power grid of perhaps 20-200 square inches..?
Thank you for your thorough and educational answers in advance!
– Fom Tooley
by Nick Gromicko, CMI®
A bug zapper is a popular exterior appliance installed by a homeowner or food handler to attempt localized control of flying insect populations. Its name comes from the characteristic “zap” sound produced when an insect is electrocuted. Around homes, they are primarily used to kill biting (female) mosquitoes, which create itchy bumps and can transmit the West Nile Virus or encephalitis, malaria and yellow fever. While Popular Mechanicsproduced a sketch of a bug zapper as early as 1911, it wasn’t until 1934 that parasitology professor Dr. W.B. Herms introduced the electronic insect killer that became the model for all future bug zappers.
How They Work
Bug zappers typically consist of the following components:
the housing, which is a plastic or grounded metal exterior casing that contains the zapper’s parts. It may be shaped liked a lantern, a cylinder or a rectangular cube. A grid design may be incorporated to prevent children and animals from touching the electrified grids inside the device;
a light source, which is usually fluorescent-type, such as mercury, neon or ultraviolet light;
wire grids or screens, which are electrified layers of wire mesh that surround the light source. These grids are separated by a tiny gap roughly the size of a typical insect (several millimeters); and
the transformer, which is the device that electrifies the wire mesh, changing the 120-volt, electrical-line voltage to 2,000 volts or more.
Bug zappers work by luring flying insects with fluorescent (typically ultraviolet) light into a deadly electrical current. Because the flower patterns that attract insects are better revealed in ultraviolet light, many flying insects that feed on flowers will be drawn to the bug zapper. Before they reach the light, however, they will come into contact with the wire mesh, completing the electrical circuit and disintegrating.
Bug zappers can kill many thousands of flying insects nightly. Some models incorporate a tray designed to collect scattered insect parts, although many models allow the debris to fall to the ground below.
Effective or Not?
Despite their widespread use, numerous studies have called into question the effectiveness and safety of bug zappers. Two of the more pressing issues are the following:
Female (biting) mosquitoes and other biting insects are more attracted to the carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor in the breath of animals than to ultraviolet light. As a consequence, standard bug zappers typically kill large numbers of harmless and beneficial insects, such as beetles and fireflies, and ultimately fail to reduce the number of the types of insects that prompt the purchase of a bug zapper in the first place. In fact, one study found that just 0.22% of the insects killed by bug zappers were biting insects, while nearly half of those killed were harmless, non-biting aquatic insects from nearby rivers and streams. The study even found “the probability of being bitten by mosquitoes increases in the vicinity of these traps,” perhaps because the biting insects are actually lured by the ultraviolet light but become distracted by the far more attractive human prey nearby. Some newer bug zappers address this issue by incorporating a CO2 container at the bottom of the lamp. Other designs attract mosquitoes into a netting device on the outside of the bug zapper that traps the mosquito, and eventually the insect dies of dehydration.
The electrocuted insects are blasted into a fine mist that contains insect parts as well as unkilled bacteria and viruses up to 7 feet (2.1 m) from the device. The air surrounding the zapper may become contaminated with campylobacter jejuni, staphylococci, serratia marcescens,enterococci, and other potentially dangerous organisms commonly carried by flies. For this reason, a bug zapper should never be placed over a food preparation area or in a hospital or any other sterile environment to prevent the potential spread of disease. Children should not be allowed to play beneath an operating bug zapper. Models that contain a tray to catch insect debris are less of a health risk.
Tips for Homeowners
Bug zappers do not present more of a fire hazard than other electrical devices. Most units have been UL-tested, but, as with any outdoor electrical appliance, care must be taken to ensure that electrical cords do not become frayed or wet. They should also be connected to GFCI-protected receptacles.
Inspectors may pass on the following mosquito-control techniques to concerned homeowners:
Do not allow water to accumulate anywhere in your yard for more than a few days. Eliminate sources of standing water, especially old tires, flower pots, clogged gutters, tin cans or buckets. Fill in or drain ruts, puddles and other low places in the yard. Even holes in trees from rot and hollow stumps can collect water that can harbor mosquitoes. Cover trash containers to keep rainwater out, and drill holes in the bottom of trash containers to allow any water to drain. Repair leaky pipes and outdoor faucets.
Bug zappers should be cleaned out at least annually to prevent the accumulation of bug parts on the wire mesh, which will decrease the effectiveness of the unit, and may lead to illness if the bug parts contaminate foods, drink or items used by people or pets.
Keep grass cut short and any shrubbery well-trimmed, as adult mosquitoes use these places to rest and hide.
Encourage the presence of bats by installing a bat house. These winged mammals pose little danger to humans, and a single brown bat can consume up to 600 mosquitoes per hour.
Install a fan. Mosquitoes and other flying insects will avoid moving air.
Wear long-sleeve shirts and pants. The pesticide permethrin may be applied to clothing to protect against mosquitoes and ticks. Beware that while permethrin is relatively safe for people and dogs, it is toxic to cats.
In summary, bug zappers are a common yet controversial means of controlling biting insect populations around the home, and caution should be taken in their selection and use.
Nitrogen narcosis, derived from the Greek word Narke is loosely translated as the “temporary decline or loss of senses and movement.” Like any other adventure sport, scuba diving comes with some associated risks. Nitrogen narcosis or getting “narked” is one of them.
Nitrogen narcosis is related to the increased solubility of gases in body tissues due to being subjected to increased pressures at depth. Likened by many scuba divers as a similar feeling to being drunk, nitrogen narcosis is also known as “Martini’s Law” with the rough guide that it is the equivalent of drinking one martini on an empty stomach for every 10 feet that you descend! The effects of nitrogen narcosis normally occur at depths of around 30m (100 feet) and below and it is not possible to develop a tolerance to the effects, however, the symptoms are completely reversible by ascending to shallower depths.
At depth, nitrogen narcosis affects the body by leading to a loss of decision making, and the ability to focus, along with impaired judgement, multi tasking and co-ordination. If you have ever taken the PADI Advanced Open Water course, you may well remember being given a series of mental tests under timed conditions on land, and then underwater at depth to compare judgement. My own test 5 years ago did not really go as planned. On land I had no problems writing the alphabet backwards in a respectable time, but underwater, my instructor wrote on the slate that I should draw a heptagon. I was never a natural mathematician at school, and so my hesitation led to my instructor believing that at 30 meters down, I was narked (when in reality even on land it takes me a long time to work out how many sides are on a heptagon – is it 5?
As with most things in life, safety comes first, however if you enjoy getting drunk but can’t stand the hangovers, maybe scuba diving is the hobby for you!