Author name: Patrick Scheidegger, M.F.A.

BUG ZAPPERS: Are they cool, or just a gimmick?

Tools to Create a Bug-Free Backyard, According to Expert Bobbi Dempsey

flowtron bk40d electronic insect killer

PM: What’s your preferred design for bug zappers?

B.D: I tend to like the lantern-style models because they are versatile, offer more options for placement, and often have a decorative look that allows them to blend in discreetly. I’ve also used hanging light models and liked them fine. I’m not a huge fan of handheld models because they involve continuous effort and also require close contact with bugs.

PM: What’s one feature you always prioritize when searching for a new bug zappers?

B.D.: I prefer bug zappers that are as quiet as possible. I’m not a fan of loud zapping noises. Unfortunately, it can be tough to gauge exactly how loud a bug zapper is until you actually use it. This is another reason why I appreciate bug zappers with a large coverage area—that way, you can set it up far from where you’ll be gathering, so the noise won’t be as much of an issue.

PM: What other products do you rely on for warding off bugs?

B.D.: I’m not a fan of harsh chemicals or toxic materials in general, so I try to opt for natural pest repellents whenever possible. I use citronella candles and essential oils such as peppermint. When using bug sprays and similar pesticides, I look for products made from plant-based ingredients. I also use diatomaceous earth as an effective, long-acting way to kill any insects that might get inside the home or garage.


Are there any regulations that prohibit bug zappers that:

1. Use UV and/or other forms of light over a certain brightness? For example, a UV light with the brightness of your average dusk-to-dawn light.

⚡︎ AND/OR ⚡︎

2. Use high voltage (above around 10,000V) with or without high current? And would there be any advantages of being able to zap insects with high power, such as reduction in “sizzle” noise?

⚡︎ AND/OR ⚡︎

3. Utilize a power grid over a certain size? Such that if a typical bug zapper uses 10 square inches: using a power grid of perhaps 20-200 square inches..?

Thank you for your thorough and educational answers in advance!

– Fom Tooley

fomtooley.com


Bug Zappers

by Nick Gromicko, CMI®
A bug zapper is a popular exterior appliance installed by a homeowner or food handler to attempt localized control of flying insect populations. Its name comes from the characteristic “zap” sound produced when an insect is electrocuted. Around homes, they are primarily used to kill biting (female) mosquitoes, which create itchy bumps and can transmit the West Nile Virus or encephalitis, malaria and yellow fever. While Popular Mechanicsproduced a sketch of a bug zapper as early as 1911, it wasn’t until 1934 that parasitology professor Dr. W.B. Herms introduced the electronic insect killer that became the model for all future bug zappers.

How They Work 

Bug zappers typically consist of the following components:

  • the housing, which is a plastic or grounded metal exterior casing that contains the zapper’s parts. It may be shaped liked a lantern, a cylinder or a rectangular cube. A grid design may be incorporated to prevent children and animals from touching the electrified grids inside the device;
  • a light source, which is usually fluorescent-type, such as mercury, neon or ultraviolet light;
  • wire grids or screens, which are electrified layers of wire mesh that surround the light source. These grids are separated by a tiny gap roughly the size of a typical insect (several millimeters); and
  • the transformer, which is the device that electrifies the wire mesh, changing the 120-volt, electrical-line voltage to 2,000 volts or more.
Bug zappers work by luring flying insects with fluorescent (typically ultraviolet) light into a deadly electrical current. Because the flower patterns that attract insects are better revealed in ultraviolet light, many flying insects that feed on flowers will be drawn to the bug zapper. Before they reach the light, however, they will come into contact with the wire mesh, completing the electrical circuit and disintegrating.
Bug zappers can kill many thousands of flying insects nightly. Some models incorporate a tray designed to collect scattered insect parts, although many models allow the debris to fall to the ground below.

Effective or Not? 

Despite their widespread use, numerous studies have called into question the effectiveness and safety of bug zappers. Two of the more pressing issues are the following:
  • Female (biting) mosquitoes and other biting insects are more attracted to the carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor in the breath of animals than to ultraviolet light. As a consequence, standard bug zappers typically kill large numbers of harmless and beneficial insects, such as beetles and fireflies, and ultimately fail to reduce the number of the types of insects that prompt the purchase of a bug zapper in the first place. In fact, one study found that just 0.22% of the insects killed by bug zappers were biting insects, while nearly half of those killed were harmless, non-biting aquatic insects from nearby rivers and streams. The study even found “the probability of being bitten by mosquitoes increases in the vicinity of these traps,” perhaps because the biting insects are actually lured by the ultraviolet light but become distracted by the far more attractive human prey nearby. Some newer bug zappers address this issue by incorporating a CO2 container at the bottom of the lamp. Other designs attract mosquitoes into a netting device on the outside of the bug zapper that traps the mosquito, and eventually the insect dies of dehydration.
  • The electrocuted insects are blasted into a fine mist that contains insect parts as well as unkilled bacteria and viruses up to 7 feet (2.1 m) from the device. The air surrounding the zapper may become contaminated with campylobacter jejuni, staphylococci, serratia marcescens,enterococci, and other potentially dangerous organisms commonly carried by flies. For this reason, a bug zapper should never be placed over a food preparation area or in a hospital or any other sterile environment to prevent the potential spread of disease. Children should not be allowed to play beneath an operating bug zapper. Models that contain a tray to catch insect debris are less of a health risk.

Tips for Homeowners 

Bug zappers do not present more of a fire hazard than other electrical devices. Most units have been UL-tested, but, as with any outdoor electrical appliance, care must be taken to ensure that electrical cords do not become frayed or wet.  They should also be connected to GFCI-protected receptacles.

Inspectors may pass on the following mosquito-control techniques to concerned homeowners:

  • Do not allow water to accumulate anywhere in your yard for more than a few days. Eliminate sources of standing water, especially old tires, flower pots, clogged gutters, tin cans or buckets. Fill in or drain ruts, puddles and other low places in the yard. Even holes in trees from rot and hollow stumps can collect water that can harbor mosquitoes. Cover trash containers to keep rainwater out, and drill holes in the bottom of trash containers to allow any water to drain. Repair leaky pipes and outdoor faucets.
  • Bug zappers should be cleaned out at least annually to prevent the accumulation of bug parts on the wire mesh, which will decrease the effectiveness of the unit, and may lead to illness if the bug parts contaminate foods, drink or items used by people or pets.
  • Keep grass cut short and any shrubbery well-trimmed, as adult mosquitoes use these places to rest and hide.
  • Encourage the presence of bats by installing a bat house. These winged mammals pose little danger to humans, and a single brown bat can consume up to 600 mosquitoes per hour.
  • Install a fan. Mosquitoes and other flying insects will avoid moving air.
  • Wear long-sleeve shirts and pants. The pesticide permethrin may be applied to clothing to protect against mosquitoes and ticks. Beware that while permethrin is relatively safe for people and dogs, it is toxic to cats.
In summary, bug zappers are a common yet controversial means of controlling biting insect populations around the home, and caution should be taken in their selection and use.

 

Nitrogen Narcosis: Depth Drunk

Nitrogen narcosis, derived from the Greek word Narke is loosely translated as the “temporary decline or loss of senses and movement.” Like any other adventure sport, scuba diving comes with some associated risks. Nitrogen narcosis or getting “narked” is one of them.

Nitrogen narcosis is related to the increased solubility of gases in body tissues due to being subjected to increased pressures at depth. Likened by many scuba divers as a similar feeling to being drunk, nitrogen narcosis is also known as “Martini’s Law” with the rough guide that it is the equivalent of drinking one martini on an empty stomach for every 10 feet that you descend! The effects of nitrogen narcosis normally occur at depths of around 30m (100 feet) and below and it is not possible to develop a tolerance to the effects, however, the symptoms are completely reversible by ascending to shallower depths.

At depth, nitrogen narcosis affects the body by leading to a loss of decision making, and the ability to focus, along with impaired judgement, multi tasking and co-ordination. If you have ever taken the PADI Advanced Open Water course, you may well remember being given a series of mental tests under timed conditions on land, and then underwater at depth to compare judgement. My own test 5 years ago did not really go as planned. On land I had no problems writing the alphabet backwards in a respectable time, but underwater, my instructor wrote on the slate that I should draw a heptagon. I was never a natural mathematician at school, and so my hesitation led to my instructor believing that at 30 meters down, I was narked (when in reality even on land it takes me a long time to work out how many sides are on a heptagon – is it 5?

As with most things in life, safety comes first, however if you enjoy getting drunk but can’t stand the hangovers, maybe scuba diving is the hobby for you!

scuba steve gets fucked up on nitrogen under the sea and forgets he needs to breathe